The Russian Empire [a] alcolismo in Russia imperiale an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America fromfollowing the end of the Great Northern Waruntil the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of The third-largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe, Asia, and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in size only by the British alcolismo in Russia imperiale Mongol empires.
It played a major role in — in defeating Napoleon 's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from untiland its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from alcolismo in Russia imperiale Like all empires, it featured great diversity in terms of economies, ethnicity, and religion.
There were many dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts; they were closely watched by the secret policewith thousands exiled to Siberia. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs Russian peasants until they were alcolismo in Russia imperiale in The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories.
The land was ruled by a nobility, the boyarsfrom the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III — laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. He tripled the territory of his alcolismo in Russia imperiale, ended the dominance of the Golden Horderenovated the Moscow Kremlinand laid the foundations of the Russian state.
Emperor Peter the Great — fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power. He moved the capital from Moscow to the alcolismo in Russia imperiale model city of St. Petersburgand led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system. Empress Catherine the Great reigned — presided over a golden age; she expanded the state by conquest, colonization and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Great's policy of modernization along Western European lines.
Emperor Alexander II — promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in The Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on alcolismo in Russia imperiale of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality until the Revolution of and then became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during alcolismo in Russia imperiale February Revolution oflargely as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred alcolismo in Russia imperiale the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the midth century, the Russo-Polish War —67 that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided alcolismo in Russia imperiale the — era, with much of the land and population going to Russia.
Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great — played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system.
While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West,  compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns. The class of kholopsclose in status to slaveryremained a major institution in Russia untilwhen Peter converted household kholops into house serfsthus including them in poll taxation.
Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks. His attention then turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Seawhere the harbor was frozen for nine months a year.
Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in with Saxonythe Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, alcolismo in Russia imperiale in the Great Northern War. The war ended in when an exhausted Sweden asked for peace with Russia. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east alcolismo in Russia imperiale the Gulf of Finland.
The coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburgto replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. Inhe turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Alcolismo in Russia imperiale influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians.
He made Astrakhan the centre of military efforts against Persia, and waged the first full-scale war against them in — Peter reorganized his government based on the latest political models of the time, moulding Russia into an absolutist state. He alcolismo in Russia imperiale the old boyar Duma council of nobles with a nine-member Senate, in effect a supreme council of state.
The countryside was divided into alcolismo in Russia imperiale provinces and districts. Peter told the Senate that its mission was to collect taxes, and tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. As part of the government reform, the Orthodox Church was partially incorporated into the country's administrative structure, in effect making it a tool of the state.
Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synodled by a government official. Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed. Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. Peter died inleaving an unsettled succession. After a short reign of his widow Catherine Ithe crown passed to empress Anna who slowed down the reforms and led a successful war against the Ottoman Empirewhich brought a significant weakening of the Ottoman vassal Crimean Khanatea long-term Russian adversary.
The discontent over the dominant positions of Baltic Germans in Russian politics put Peter Alcolismo in Russia imperiale daughter Elizabeth on the Russian throne. Elizabeth supported the arts, architecture and the sciences for example with the foundation of the Moscow University.
However, she did alcolismo in Russia imperiale carry out significant structural reforms. Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War. It was successful for Russia militarily, but fruitless politically. After the death of Empress Elizabeth, she came to power when her coup d'état against her unpopular husband succeeded.
She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great. State service was abolished, Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over most state functions in the provinces to them.
As well as removing the tax on beards, instituted by Peter the Great. Catherine the Great extended Russian political control over the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. Alcolismo in Russia imperiale actions included the support of the Targowica Confederationalthough the cost of her campaigns, on top of the oppressive social system that required serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on their owners' alcolismo in Russia imperiale, provoked a major peasant uprising inafter Catherine legalised the selling of serfs separate from land.
Inspired by a Cossack named Pugachevwith the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords! Instead of the traditional punishment of being drawn and quartered, Catherine issued secret instructions that the executioner should carry the sentence out quickly alcolismo in Russia imperiale with a minimum of suffering, as part of her effort to introduce compassion into the law.
These gestures of compassion garnered Catherine much positive attention from Europe experiencing the Enlightenment age, but the specter of revolution and disorder continued to haunt her and her successors. In order to ensure continued support from the nobility, which was essential to the survival of her government, Catherine was obliged to strengthen their authority and power at the expense of the serfs and other lower classes.
Nevertheless, Catherine realized that serfdom must be ended, going so far in her Nakaz "Instruction" to say that serfs were "just as good as we are" — a comment the nobility received with disgust. Catherine successfully waged war against the Ottoman Empire and advanced Russia's southern boundary to the Black Sea.
Then, by plotting with the rulers of Austria and Prussiashe incorporated territories of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Partitions of Polandpushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. In accordance with the treaty Russia had signed alcolismo in Russia imperiale the Georgians to protect them against any new invasion of their Persian suzerains and further political aspirations, Catherine waged a new war against Persia in after they had again invaded Georgia and established rule over it about a year prior and expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus.
By the time of her death inCatherine's expansionist policy had turned Russia into a major European power. Russia was in a continuous state of financial crisis. While revenue rose from 9 million rubles in to 40 million inexpenses grew more rapidly, reaching 49 million in The budget allocated 46 percent to the military, 20 percent to government economic activities, 12 percent to administration, and nine percent for the Imperial Court in St.
The deficit required borrowing, primarily from Amsterdam; five percent of the budget was allocated to debt payments. Paper money was issued to pay for expensive wars, thus causing inflation. For its spending, Russia obtained a large and well-equipped army, a very large and complex bureaucracy, and a court that rivaled Paris and London. However the government was living far beyond its means, and 18th-century Russia remained "a poor, backward, overwhelmingly agricultural, and illiterate country".
French Emperor Napoleonfollowing a dispute with Alcolismo in Russia imperiale Alexander Ilaunched an invasion of Russia inwhich was catastrophic for France. Although Napoleon's Grande Armée reached Moscow, the Russians' scorched earth strategy prevented the invaders from living off the country. In the bitter Russian winterthousands of French troops were ambushed and killed by peasant guerrilla fighters.
After Russia and its allies defeated Napoleon, Alexander became known as the 'saviour of Europe', and he presided over the redrawing of the map of Europe at the Congress of Viennathat ultimately alcolismo in Russia imperiale Alexander the monarch of Congress Poland. Although the Russian Empire played a leading political role in the next century, thanks to its defeat of Napoleonic France, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree.
As Western European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial RevolutionRussia began to lag ever farther behind, creating new weaknesses for the Empire seeking to play a role as a great alcolismo in Russia imperiale. This status concealed the inefficiency of its government, the isolation of its people, and its economic backwardness.
Following the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander I had been ready to discuss constitutional reforms, but though a few were introducedno major changes were attempted. The liberal tsar was replaced by his younger brother, Nicholas I —who at the beginning of his reign was confronted with an uprising. The background of this revolt lay in the Napoleonic Warswhen a number of well-educated Russian officers travelled in Europe in the course alcolismo in Russia imperiale military campaigns, where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Europe encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Russia.
The result was the Decembrist revolt Decemberthe work of a small circle of liberal nobles and army officers who wanted to install Nicholas' brother as a constitutional monarch.
But the revolt was easily crushed, leading Nicholas to turn away from the modernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. The retaliation for the revolt made "December Fourteenth" a day long remembered by later revolutionary movements.
In order to repress further revolts, censorship was intensified, including the constant surveillance of schools and universities. Textbooks were strictly regulated by the government. Police spies were planted everywhere. Would-be revolutionaries were sent off to Siberia — under Nicholas I hundreds of thousands were sent to katorga there. The question of Russia's direction had been gaining attention ever since Peter the Great's program of modernization. Some favored imitating Western Europe while others were against this and called for a return to the traditions of the past.
The latter path was advocated by Slavophileswho held the "decadent" West in contempt. The Slavophiles were opponents of bureaucracy who preferred the collectivism of the medieval Russian obshchina or mir over the individualism of the West.
After the Russian armies liberated allied since the Treaty of Georgievsk Georgia from the Qajar dynasty 's occupation in[ citation needed ] in the Russo-Persian War —13 they clashed with Persia over control and consolidation over Georgia, and also got involved in the Caucasian War against the Caucasian Imamate.
The conclusion of the — war with Persia made it irrevocably cede what is now DagestanGeorgia, and most of Azerbaijan to Russia following the Treaty of Gulistan. The late s were successful military years. Following a brief occupation, the Russian imperial army withdrew back into Georgia.