The Norwegian Rune Poem has often been evaluated negatively because of an overall impression of a lack of coherence and cohesion. Analysis of the poem against the background of wisdom tradition has allowed a better compatisca ad alcolismo of the mechanisms involved in its composition.
Introduction The Germanic runic lore is of a composite nature; it consists of short inscriptions by means of runic letters, carved on compatisca ad alcolismo objects made of wood, bone compatisca ad alcolismo metal, and of later texts, compatisca ad alcolismo longer in size, and carved on the rune stones which are scattered throughout the Scandinavian countryside.
The runic tradition also includes runes handed down in manuscripts, referred to through the comprehensive label of runica manuscripta.
This corpus compatisca ad alcolismo of the short and structurally very plain, 9th-century Abecedarium Nordmannicum1, and verses from the Anglo-Saxon and Norse areas, which are more elaborate and informative. In the appendix to her work, the scholar also published the editions and translations of the Norwegian and Icelandic Rune Poems ibid.
The quotations in the present article will be from this work. Bauer, Runengedichte. The NRP, which is the subject of the present analysis, probably goes back to the beginning of the 13th century, but is only known through late, 17th-century copies5, and through a print by Ole Worm6.
These first lines of the couplets concern nature, compatisca ad alcolismo elements and their properties, human life, feelings and behaviours in specific circumstances. The Swedish Rune Poem is also part of the Scandinavian tradition. However, it will not be dealt with because it is late and its text is defective. Bauer also conducted a survey on several later copies of the poem that to date have not received much scholarly attention. She compared them with the two oldest copies, concluding that they all go back to the same original ibid.
For an overview of the dating of the poem and related issues, see ibid. Vulgo Gothica dicta,pp. The NRP has been subject to close scrutiny since the 19th century mainly because, together with the IRP, it was envisioned as a quarry from which some of the building blocks of the religious beliefs, rituals and traditions of ancient Germanic communities could be extracted7.
However, these poems were not held in great esteem as literary products. The main reason for this view, which concerned compatisca ad alcolismo — but not only — the NRP, was the difficulty in finding a ratio in the coupling of the lines in the stanzas, which were charged with an overall lack compatisca ad alcolismo cohesion8.
For further references, see M. Neuner and then by J. According to Neuner, for instance, the ís-rune recalls the shape of a staff, that is, an object compatisca ad alcolismo great help to a blind person, who is referred to in the second line. Stoklund, M. Lerche Nielsen, B. Holmberg, G. Fellows-Jensen eds. By applying the pictographic thread, J. The pictographic principle, in the Seventh International Symposium.
The third example, that of hagall st. The scholar sketched the background against which these poems should be considered and pointed out the centrality of wisdom tradition, which was very influential in several works in the Compatisca ad alcolismo tradition. Additionally, some peculiarities of the NRP compatisca ad alcolismo found an explanation in a rhetorical and stylistic technique used in the skaldic poetic diction and which, according to Clunies Ross, was also detectable in the NRP.
Shippey, Poems of Wisdom and Learning, D. Brewer, Cambridge ; B. The association of this stylistic feature with the NRP and the role of sapiential literature in its context led Clunies Ross, and later Bauer, to pinpoint links that had previously gone unnoticed.
Starting from these assumptions, it is useful to give a brief survey of the sapiential tradition in Norse literature, which may account for the unfolding of some of the topics and for the associations compatisca ad alcolismo therein.
Compatisca ad alcolismo the course of the. Skaut jörd ór geima. The sea lay over the mountains. Faulkes Snorri Sturluson. Wisdom tradition in Old Norse poetry Sapiential topics feature in several mythological and heroic eddic poems, and also compatisca ad alcolismo saga literature The main purpose of wisdom tradition was to hand down knowledge and old lore in order to help man make sense of the complexities of the world, especially of those aspects that defied human understanding providing guidance in the form of advice and precepts.
Gnomic tradition also plays a compatisca ad alcolismo role in works dated to the 13th and 14th centuries, in which eddic conventions and pagan imagery and characters surface in the context of the Christian literary environment to which they belong. Compatisca ad alcolismo the close relationship between the Rune Poems and wisdom tradition, see M. Cavill, Maxims, p. Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. Larrington and P.
A few similarities between the Song of the Sun and the NRP have already been singled out26, but they could be further implemented, as I shall try to show later on, whilst the The Proverb Poem has not yet been considered in relationship with the NRP. The account is preceded by an extensive gnomic section sts. Traditional gnomic utterances may also be applied to promoting Christian moral stances, as in the next section of compatisca ad alcolismo poem, that consisting of counsels sts.
IIB, Gyldendal, Copenhagenpp. A new edition of the poem, by R. Frank, is forthcoming Poetry from Treatises on Poetics, K. Gade — E. Marold ed. Workshop 6. Christianity and Old Norse Poetry,pp. Its frame features an irreverent poetic voice focused on overcoming the pangs of unreciprocated love and frustrated expectations. The poem reveals several native and foreign influences, and its sapiential aspect partly explains compatisca ad alcolismo tenuous cohesion of individual couplets and also of larger sections of stanzas.
The structure of the Norwegian Rune Poem 3. Tyding og tolkingsgrunnlag, Universitetsforlaget, Bergenpp. Weber, Intellegere historiam. Essays zur Geschichtsmythologie Skandinaviens in Mittelalter und Neuzeit. On typology in relationship with the NRP, see M. The importance of this norm lies in the function that distributing wealth played a role in strengthening and developing social bonds, which was essential for the survival of small groups and communities.
In The Fortunes of Men, the list of unfortunate deaths that could befall man begins with the prospect of being eaten by a wolf 12ba The lawbreakers, who were also referred to as skóggangamenn, were punished through exile because of the threat they represented to the community This connection is also resumed by A.
Bauer, Runengedichte, pp. Krapp — E. Bjork, Old English Shorter Poems. Volume II. The ravenousness of the animal is dealt with in detail in ll. There is an ancient association between outlawry and the wolf in the Germanic communities, which also has IE parallels. The paradigm thus established in the first couplet — improper use of wealth, the resulting disruption of kinship bonds, and isolation — is the kernel of several mythological and heroic episodes, first and foremost of the Volsungic-Nibelungic story cycle40, as Clunies Ross has noted.
The virtue of munificence is also reflected upon in the gyfu-stanza, which advocates generosity on behalf of the well-to-do, from which the poor and destitute will benefit This value also occupies a pivotal position in the mid-section of the NRP and is endorsed by means of gnomic statements also involving a mythical king.
On this subject, see compatisca ad alcolismo thorough analysis by M. Thus, Reginn epitomises the dangers connected with covetousness for gold, the refusal to share it and the deadly effects of all this on family relationships. In my view, this emphasis and its wide-ranging associations are also endorsed by the compatisca ad alcolismo that the names of the. Bauer, Runengedichte, p. Thus, the two lines may be seen in terms of a cause and effect nexus. This kind of pattern is arguably detectable in the kaun-stanza too, although its interpretation entails several semantic, metrical and syntactic problems.
For a summary of the main conundrums that concern the couplet, compatisca ad alcolismo A. The gist of the statements is the importance of supporting those in need — the poor and the blind Krapp ed. Weber, Intellegere historiam, pp. Also at that time there were no thieves or robbers, so compatisca ad alcolismo a gold ring lay for a long time on Ialangr heath]. The final phase of Norse mythology is often recalled in the Poetic Edda. Hence, the sword-kenning gómsparri [gum-prop]. Poole ed.
Chase ed. This compatisca ad alcolismo triggered the conclusive phase of the world and its subsequent destruction at Ragnarök according to the pagan mythological view. Quellen und Quellenprobleme. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, H.
Beck — D. Ellmers — K. This reading is also followed by M. Bauer Runengedichte, p. The name Laufey is translated by F.