Pantothenic acidalso called vitamin B 5 a B vitaminis a come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A CoAas well as to synthesize and metabolize proteinscarbohydratesand fats.
The anion is called pantothenate. Its name derives from the Greek pantothenmeaning "from everywhere", and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy whole-grain cerealsegg yolksliver and dried mushrooms. Pantothenic acid was discovered by Roger J. Williams in Only the dextrorotatory D isomer of pantothenic acid possesses biologic activity.
Pantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A CoA. Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell. Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. Since pantothenic acid participates in a wide array of key biological roles, it is essential to all forms of life.
Content of pantothenic acid varies among manufactured and natural foods, especially fortified ready-to-eat cereals, infant formulasenergy bars and dried foods. The derivative of pantothenic acid, come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy panthenolis a more stable form of the vitamin and is often used as a source of the vitamin in multivitamin supplements. Another common supplemental form of the vitamin is calcium pantothenate. Calcium pantothenate is often used in dietary supplements because, as a salt, it is more stable than pantothenic acid.
The U. In instances such as this, the Board sets Adequate Intakes AIswith the understanding that at some later date, AIs will be replaced by more exact information. For infants up to 12 months the AI is 1. In the case of pantothenic acid there is no UL, as there is no human data for adverse effects from come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy doses.
AI and Come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy are defined the same as in the U. These AIs are similar to the U. For U. Food and supplement companies have until January 1, to comply with the change. When found in foods, most pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or bound to acyl carrier protein ACP. For the intestinal cells to absorb this vitamin, it must be converted into free pantothenic acid.
The 4'-phosphopantetheine is then come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy into pantetheine. Pantetheinasean intestinal enzyme, then hydrolyzes pantetheine into free pantothenic acid. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed into intestinal cells via a saturable, sodium-dependent active transport system. Pantothenic acid deficiency is exceptionally rare and has not been thoroughly studied. In the few cases where deficiency has been seen victims of starvation and limited volunteer trialsnearly all symptoms can be reversed with the return of pantothenic acid.
Symptoms of deficiency are similar to other vitamin B deficiencies. There is impaired energy production, due to low CoA levels, which could cause symptoms of irritability, fatigueand apathy. Deficiency symptoms in other nonruminant animals include disorders of the nervous, gastrointestinal, and immune systems, reduced growth rate, decreased food intake, skin lesions and changes in hair coat, and alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
Toxicity of pantothenic acid is unlikely. Although pantothenic acid supplementation is under preliminary research for a variety of human diseases, there is insufficient evidence to date that it has any effect. No dietary requirement for pantothenic acid has come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy established as synthesis of pantothenic acid by ruminal microorganisms appears to be 20 to 30 times more than dietary amounts. Net microbial synthesis of pantothenic acid in the rumen of steer calves has been estimated to be 2.
The degradation of dietary intake of pantothenic acid is considered to be 78 percent. Supplementation of pantothenic acid at 5 to 10 times theoretic requirements did not improve performance of feedlot come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with pantethine. CAS Number. Interactive image R : Interactive image S : Interactive image.
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Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle 7th ed. Vitamins A Ascorbic acid Dehydroascorbic acid. Dietary supplements. Metabolism of vitaminscoenzymes, and cofactors. Retinol binding protein. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. Vitamin K epoxide reductase. Thiamine diphosphokinase. Indoleamine come curare lalcolismo encephalopathy Formamidase.
Pantothenate kinase. Dihydropteroate synthase Dihydrofolate reductase Serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. L-gulonolactone oxidase.
Riboflavin kinase. GTP cyclohydrolase I 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase Sepiapterin reductase. Preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers D Bromelain Clostridiopeptidase Trypsin.
EC Number. Very soluble  2.