Arkhangelsk Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Its population including Nenetsia was 1, as of the Census. Arkhangelsk Oblast is located on the East European Plainand most of it represents forested hilly landscape. The north-eastern part belongs to the Timan Ridgea highland mostly situated east from the oblast. This region has a genetically distinct population of polar bears associated with the Barents Sea area. A minor area in the west of the Oblast, most notably the basin of the Ileksa Riverdrains into the Lake Onega and eventually to the Baltic Sea.
A esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk minor area in Kargopolsky District in the south-west of the Oblast drains into the Kema River which belongs to the basin of the Caspian Sea.
The tundra of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug also contains a number of bigger lakes. The river basin of the Pinega is characteristic of the karstwith a number of caves in the region. Solovetsky Islandsas well as a number of smaller islands, are located in Onega Bay.
Almost all of the oblast is covered by taigathe coniferous forest dominated by pinespruceand larch. Large areas in the middle of taiga are devoid of trees and covered by swamps. In the floodplains of the rivers, there are meadows.
A number esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk areas in Arkhangelsk Oblast have been designated as protected natural areas. The following protected areas have been designated.
The area of Arkhangelsk Oblast has been settled by Finno-Ugric peoples since prehistoric times, and most of the toponyms in the region are in fact Finno-Ugric. It was subsequently colonized by the Novgorod Republic.
Kargopol was first esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk in the chronicles inShenkursk was mentioned inand Solvychegodsk was founded in the 14th century. By the 13th century the Novgorodian merchants had already reached the White Seaattracted to the area for fur trading. The Novgorodians penetrated the area using the waterways, and this is why most of the ancient as well as the modern settlements were located into the main river valleys. The main waterway was the Northern Dvina, and Novgorod merchants used the Volga and its tributary, the Sheksnaalong the Slavyanka River into Lake Nikolskoye, then the boats were taken by land to Lake Blagoveshchenskoye, from there downstream along the Porozovitsa River into Lake Kubenskoye and further to the Sukhona and the Northern Dvina.
After the fall esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk Novgorod inall these lands became a part of the Great Duchy of Moscow. Untilthe Northern Dvina served as the main export trading route of Muscovy. The local centers were Veliky Ustyug and Kholmogory ; however, during the 17th century, Kholmogory lost its significance, and its role was gradually replaced by Esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk. Inwhen the governorates were established by Tsar Peter the GreatArkhangelsk became the seat of one of the seven governorates of the Russian Empire.
At the same time, Arkhangelsk lands were one of the most remote areas in Russia. This fact was attractive for monks fleeing the crowds. InSolovetsky Monastery was founded, and it quickly became one of the richest and most influential Russian monasteries.
Other monasteries followed. For instance, Kozheozersky Monasteryfounded instill remains one of the most remote Russian Orthodox monasteries. After the great schism in the Russian Orthodox Church inthe area attracted many Old Believerswho were persecuted by the state. Most would later flee to even more remote locations such as Siberia. Inwith the construction esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk St. Petersburg, Arkhangelsk, which lacked St.
Petersburg's geographical proximity to Europe and the non-freezing harbour of Murmansklost its significance as the main trading harbour of the Russian Empire. However, in the early 20th century Arkhangelsk was an important starting point for Russian Arctic expeditions.
For instance, in the s Pyotr Pakhtusov sailed twice from Arkhangelsk to investigate and map Novaya Zemlya. In the icebreaker Sibiryakov under the command of Vladimir Voroninsailing from Arkhangelsk, crossed the Northern Sea Route in a single navigation. In andArkhangelsk Governorate became one of the most active battlegrounds of the Civil War in Russia.
Esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk August 2,Arkhangelsk was occupied by British and American troops, allied with the White movement. Administratively, they established Northern Oblast with the center in Arkhangelsk. The troops advanced to the south, occupied the station of Obozerskaya in Septemberand moving along the Northern Dvina and the Vaga Rivers.
The southernmost points occupied by the allies were Shenkursk and Verkhnyaya Toyma. The allies were hoping that the Aleksandr Kolchak 's forces would move in the direction of Kotlashowever, the White Army was unable to advance in this direction.
In Januaryafter the Battle esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk Shenkurskthe allied forces were driven out of the Shenkursk area. Battles around the station of Plesetskaya followed. On February 20,the Esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk Army entered Arkhangelsk. By that time, all allied troops were already evacuated. In the s, the Soviets carried out the same experiments in economics as elsewhere in Soviet Union.
The peasants and fishermen were forcibly esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk into collective farms. These were heavily subsidized, which eventually brought the agriculture to the collapse in the s, when the subsidies stopped.
Esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk Oblast was and remains attractive as an area for exile, forcible resettlement, and prison camps. Actually, the first prison camp, Solovki Prison Campwas created in on the premises of the former Solovetsky Monastery.
Novaya Zemlya from the s, when its population mostly Nenets was strongly recommended to leave, became the military ground for nuclear bomb testing. Arkhangelsk Oblast proper was established in Beforethe high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Arkhangelsk Oblast CPSU Committee who in reality had the biggest authoritythe chairman of the oblast Soviet legislative powerand the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee executive power.
In the CPSU lost all power. The head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, came to be elected or appointed. The economic crisis of safter the fall of the Soviet Unionstruck Arkhangelsk Oblast very badly. Although there remains a strong demand for timber, the basis of the oblast's economy, the population of Arkhangelsk Oblast has steadily declined, especially in rural areas. Many villages either have been deserted, or are on the verge of disappearing.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Arkhangelsk CPSU Committee who in reality had the highest authoritythe chairman of the oblast Soviet legislative powerand the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee executive power.
The Charter of Arkhangelsk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Arkhangelsk Oblast is the province's standing legislative representative body.
The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
In the period when they were the most important authority in the oblast tothe following first secretaries were appointed . Sincegovernors were sometimes appointed, and sometimes elected, . The oblast is administratively divided into six cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction ArkhangelskKoryazhmaKotlasNovodvinskEsser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelskand Severodvinskone city under the federal jurisdiction Mirnytwenty-one districts one of which is Novaya Zemlya esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk, and two island territories Franz Josef Land and Victoria Island.
Nenets Autonomous Okrugwhich is administratively subordinated to the oblast, is administratively divided into one district Zapolyarny District and one town of okrug significance Naryan-Mar. Huge areas within the limits of the oblast are included in the border security zoneintended to protect the borders of the Russian Federation from unwanted activity.
In particular, the area includes the esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk of Mezen and the urban type settlement of Kamenka. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local FSB department is required. Arkhangelsk Oblast is one of the industrial regions of Russia. The region has a esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk fisheryforestry, woodworking, celluloseand paper industry.
There are large reserves of natural resources: Lumberoilbauxitetitaniumgoldmanganeseand basalt. The principal industrial enterprises in Arkhangelsk Oblast are shipyards in Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk including Sevmashpulp and paper mills in Koryazhma and Novodvinsk, and bauxite extraction plant in Severoonezhsk.
Almost any town has some timber works. Fishery traditionally was the main means of subsistence in the Pomor villages at the White Sea coast. During the Soviet times, the fishermen were organized into collective and state farms Sovkhoz 's and esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk fishery was heavily subsidized. In the s the subsidies were stopped, and the fishery went into a serious crisis, some of the villages were deserted.
In the valleys of the main rivers, there is some cattle breeding and crop and potato growing, which is, however, difficult because of the cold climate. Ustyansky District is notable for bee-keeping.
Two notable breeds originate from Arkhangelsk Oblast. The Kholmogory cattlefrom Kholmogory and Arkhangelsk countryside, mostly black and white, was particularly stable against cold climate in Northern Russia and eventually spread well beyond the Arkhangelsk Region.
The area of current Arkhangelsk Oblast has always been located on the trading routes connecting central Russia to the White Sea, and, in fact, in the 17th century the White Sea was the main sea export route for Russia.
The whole course of the Northern Dvina is navigable, as well as the lower course of some of its tributaries, most notably the Vychegda, the Vaga, and the Pinega. The Mezen is also navigable in the lower course. The Onega is not navigable except for the two relatively short stretches because of the rapids. However, except for the lower course of the Vychegda and some parts of the Northern Dvina, there is currently very little or no regular passenger navigation on these rivers. They are used for cargo traffic though.
Ina road was built between Saint-Petersburg and Arkhangelsk, mainly for postal service. This highway is paved and heavily used. In general, the road network is grossly underdeveloped.
Only several all-season highways, in addition to M8, cross the oblast boundaries: the one partially unpaved connecting Kotlas with Syktyvkar ; the one paved connecting Kotlas to Veliky Ustyug and eventually with Vologda and Nikolskthe one paved from Konosha southwards, and two unpaved from Kargopol to Pudozh and to Solza and Belozersk. Most of the local roads are unpaved. Untilthere were no all-season roads connecting the main road esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk with the north-east of the oblast, including the town of Mezen and the selo of Leshukonskoye, and there are still no roads into the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, on the left bank of the Onega downstream from Esser cifrato da alcool in Arkhangelsk, and very few roads on the right bank of the Northern Dvina.
Many rivers can only be crossed by ferry boats, which means they cannot be crossed during the ice melting period.