Temperament and parental practices PP are important predictors of adolescent alcohol use AU ; however, less is known about how they combine to increase or decrease risk of AU.
This study examined whether age 6 temperament i. Results showed that low parental monitoring was associated with more frequent AU and that coercive PP interacted with impulsivity to predict AU. This interaction was examined as a function of two models that were not studied before in the prediction of AU: the diathesis—stress model i. Results supported the differential susceptibility model by showing that impulsive children were not only at higher risk for AU when combined with high coercive PP but also benefit from the absence of coercive PP.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the interaction between temperament and parenting variables in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use while considering theoretical models that could explain those interactions.
Temperament refers to early emerging individual differences regarding reactivity, which refers to the speed and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity e. Of note, early inhibition has been associated with alcohol use Caspi et al. Several dimensions of parental practices have been found to be associated with adolescent alcohol use and could interact with inhibition or impulsivity to predict alcohol use.
Among those, parental monitoring has been repeatedly associated with alcohol use e. Although studies have found direct effects of both temperament and parenting esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina adolescent alcohol use, it has been suggested that an interaction between temperament and the environment i. Only three studies have focused on the interplay between temperament and parenting in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use, and how parental practices may exacerbate or dampen the risk conveyed by temperamental characteristics.
The other two studies assessed the link between childhood predictors temperament and parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use in the same prospective cohort. The first one Burk et al. The second study Armstrong et al. In contrast, authoritarian parenting, characterized by control, criticism, and punishment, predicted growth of esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina use from Grade 9 to Grade Boys and girls low in dis-inhibition at ages 3. Whereas boys high in disinhibition all had a steep esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina in alcohol use from Grade 9 to Grade 12, authoritarian esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina may have had a protective effect on girls high in temperamental disinhibition, for whom the increase in alcohol consumption leveled off by Grade This vulnerability is only observed in adverse environments; vulnerable and resilient children would develop similarly in the absence of adverse parental practices.
A more recent and complementary theory challenges this conception. Therefore, susceptible impulsive and inhibited children would have lower levels of alcohol use than nonimpulsive and noninhibited children when exposed to positive parental practices in addition to having higher levels of alcohol use when exposed to adverse parenting. Impulsivity and inhibition would no longer be conceived exclusively as risk factors; they would also hold the promise of greater benefits from positive environments.
These two models may be distinguished empirically by careful analyses of the patterns esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina statistical interaction. Statistical support for the diathesis—stress model comes from a pattern where an individual characteristic is related to an outcome and an ordinal fan-shaped interaction is found Belsky et al. Support for the differential susceptibility model is demonstrated when a disordinal crossover interaction is found, with the slope of the association between esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina environmental factor and the outcome for the susceptible group being significantly different from zero and significantly steeper than the slope for the nonsusceptible group.
Finally, the susceptibility factor should not be related to the environmental factor or to the outcome Belsky esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina al. Once these criteria have been met, two additional steps designed to test the significance of the crossover interaction have been proposed that go beyond simple appraisal of the plots Roisman et al.
The majority of previous studies examining interactions between temperament and parenting as esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina as other family factors in the prediction of adolescent alcohol use and other outcomes were conducted within a diathesis—stress frame of reference. However, recent studies found gene—environment interactions in the prediction of substance use that support the differential susceptibility model Daw et al.
Furthermore, Belsky and Pluessreexamined prior published studies to determine the extent to which they supported the differential susceptibility model. It is possible that this may also be the case for adolescent alcohol use, which should be examined specifically and a priori. The first objective of this study was to examine whether child temperament and parenting characteristics interact in the prediction of alcohol use at 15 years. Participants for this study come from a longitudinal study aiming to better understand the social, psychological, and cognitive development of children in Québec.
This urban sample differed slightly from a larger population-based sample of Québec 5-month-old children born 2 years later Tremblay et al. Mothers in the sample were also older than in the larger population esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina the birth of the participants The participants were followed annually.
Two scales were used: six items on impulsivity speed of response initiation; e. Mothers reported on seven questions e. These questions were sensitive in other studies e. Adolescents reported on their substance use when they were 15 years old.
Alcohol use frequency esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina assessed with a question based on the Québec Survey on Tobacco, Alcohol and Drug Use and Gambling in Secondary School Students Institut de la statistique du Québec, and asking participants at what frequency they had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months.
In order to test main and interaction effects of age 6 and age 14 parental practices and age 6 temperament in the prediction of age 15 adolescent alcohol use, a series of linear regressions path analysis were conducted using Mplus version 7. We included sex, the two predictors age 6 coercive parenting and age 14 parental monitoring and the two moderators age 6 impulsivity and inhibitory control in the first model, and the interaction terms between the predictors and the moderators were included in the second model.
All predictor and moderator variables were standardized before computing interaction terms and entering variables in the analysis. Full information maximum likelihood was used to account for missing data. Three-way interactions with sex were also tested and were not significant. When significant interactions were found, the effect of the predictor was plotted as a function of the moderator and followed by simple slope tests to determine the nature of the interaction.
To determine if the differential susceptibility model was supported, significant interactions were examined according to the four criteria previously mentioned. Following the examination of those criteria, additional steps have been esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina Roisman et al. While this method has been used in most recent studies examining the differential susceptibility model, it can lack power in small samples and when the environmental variable does not cover the entire range, from very enriched to very adverse Belsky et al.
A new procedure that addresses these power issues was used in this study and can determine statistically if the interaction is disordinal Widaman et al. With this procedure, the crossover point and its confidence interval are estimated: an interaction is disordinal and supports the differential susceptibility model when the confidence interval of the crossover point falls within the observed range of the predictor i. If the crossover point is outside the observed range of the predictor, the interaction is ordinal and supports the diathesis—stress model.
Table 1 presents correlations between the variables that were used in regression analyses. There was a small correlation between sex and parental monitoring at 14 years, and between sex and inhibitory control at 6 years; girls reported more monitoring from their parents and had higher levels of inhibitory control.
Inhibitory control at 6 years was mildly negatively correlated with impulsivity at 6 years. Coercive parenting at 6 years and parental monitoring at 14 years were mildly and negatively correlated with each other. Coercive parenting at 6 years was negatively associated with inhibitory control and positively correlated with impulsivity, both assessed at 6 years, while parental monitoring at 14 years was only associated positively with inhibitory control at 6 years.
There were no correlations between alcohol use scores at 15 years and temperament scores at 6 years, but alcohol use frequency at 15 esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina was mildly negatively correlated with parental monitoring at 14 years. As noted previously, the differential susceptibility model requires the predictor and moderator to be independent from each other.
However, coercive parenting was mildly associated with both impulsivity and inhibitory control at age 6. The findings did not change whether the original or residual score were used.
The following results are from the analysis using the residual score. As shown in Table 2only one significant main effect was found in the first step of the model. Simple slope analyses showed that the effect of coercive parenting at 6 years was significant when impulsivity at 6 years was high, but not when esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina was low see Figure 1. Relative to children low in impulsivity, children high in impulsivity had both higher levels of alcohol esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina frequency at 15 years when exposed to high coercive parenting at 6 years and lower levels of alcohol use frequency at 15 years when exposed to low coercive parenting at 6 years.
Age 6 coercive parenting by impulsivity interaction predicting adolescent alcohol use frequency at 15 years. Main and interaction effects of temperament at 6 years, coercive parenting at 6 years, and parental monitoring at 14 years on alcohol use frequency at 15 years. According to the plotted data and the simple slope tests, the interaction met criteria for the differential susceptibility model. It was a disordinal crossover interaction.
The slope for the children high in impulsivity at 6 years differed significantly from zero. The slope for the children high in impulsivity at 6 years was steeper than the slope for the children low in impulsivity, which was not significantly different from zero.
Finally, impulsivity at 6 years was not related to alcohol use frequency at 15 years or to residuals of coercive parenting at 6 years. The objectives of this study were twofold. The first objective was to determine if temperamental and parenting dimensions that predicted substance use through main effects in previous studies could interact to predict adolescent alcohol use.
A second objective was to examine if such interactions could be interpreted according to a diathesis—stress or a differential susceptibility model. The main findings of this study first indicate that low parental monitoring in adolescence was associated with a higher frequency of alcohol use.
Second, we found that not only did child impulsivity and coercive parenting interact to predict adolescent alcohol use but also that this interaction supports the differential susceptibility model. This suggests that, with regard to adolescent alcohol use, early impulsivity may be a key marker of plasticity, which confers risk under certain conditions and a clear advantage under other conditions. After examining whether childhood temperament i. These findings are consistent with and extend those of other studies showing that impulsive temperament traits interacted with parental practices in the prediction of substance use.
Interactions with impulsivity and coercive parenting were also found in the prediction of externalizing problems Leve et al. While we found that early childhood temperament and parenting could predict adolescent alcohol use, other variables could come into play across developmental periods. Whereas coercive parenting and impulsivity at 6 years interacted to esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina alcohol use at 15 esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina, coercive parenting did not interact with inhibitory control at 6 years.
Several factors could account for this difference across temperament dimensions. First, although these two temperamental dimensions were mildly correlated, they are quite different in that impulsivity is a measure of reactivity and inhibitory control is a measure of self-regulation.
Impulsivity represents spontaneous and quick reactions to the environment, whereas inhibitory control represents the conscious decision-making process involved in suppressing inappropriate dominant responses Rothbart et al.
Thus, in this sample, the tendency at 6 years to have quick spontaneous reactions seems more important in the prediction of early adolescent alcohol use than the absence of the conscious regulation of reactions when faced with exterior demands. However, by using the term inhibitionesser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina is unclear to which of attentional, motivational, cognitive, and motor dimensions of inhibition these studies are referring Nigg, In this study, we measured inhibitory control, a self-regulatory measure implicating decision making.
Future studies comparing different measures of inhibition could test esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina hypothesis. A main effect of parental monitoring at 14 years was also found, showing that lower levels of monitoring at 14 years were associated with more frequent alcohol use at 15 years, which is consistent with the results of previous studies e.
Although coercive parenting in childhood interacted with concurrent impulsivity in predicting adolescence alcohol use, the interactions of parental monitoring in adolescence with childhood impulsivity or inhibitory control did not predict alcohol use. This esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina that the interplay between esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina and temperament on adolescent alcohol may change across development, and that parental monitoring during adolescence may be beneficial to all adolescents in reducing risk for alcohol use.
In contrast, that childhood temperament interacted with concurrent parental practices, but not with parenting in adolescence, could be explained methodologically, because reports were not only obtained from different informants but also measured different facets of parental practices.
To determine whether this difference between these statistical interactions in childhood and adolescence was due to developmental or measurement differences, future studies could examine whether temperament measured in adolescence interacts with parenting in adolescence, examine the same parenting dimension in childhood and adolescence, or use the same informant for parenting in childhood and adolescence.
The significant interaction between impulsivity and coercive parenting was examined to determine whether it esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina the diathesis—stress model or the differential susceptibility model, a question that had not been tested in previous studies of temperament and parenting in the prediction of alcohol use.
The esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina met the four key criteria for support of the differential susceptibility model. When exposed to low coercive parenting, children with higher levels of impulsivity at 6 years had less frequent alcohol use at 15 years than did children with low levels of esser cifrato da alcool in Gatchina.