The city of Vladivostok is la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai administrative center of the krai, as well as la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai largest city in the Russian Far East. The krai shares Russia's only border with North Koreaalong the Tumen River in Khasansky District in the southwestern corner of the krai. Peter the Great Gulfthe largest gulf in the Sea of Japanis located along the south coast.
Historically part of ManchuriaPrimorsky Krai was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China in as part of a region known as Outer Manchuriaforming most of the territory of Primorskaya Oblast. During the Russian Civil War it became part of the Far Eastern Republic before joining the La codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai Uniongoing through numerous changes until reaching its current form in Highlands dominate the territory of the krai.
Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation, extending for the most part of the Krai. It consists of a number of parallel ranges: the Partizansky Partisanthe Siny Bluethe Kholodny Coldand others. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye. The relatively accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai the Sleeping Beauty in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists.
There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area. The ranges are cut by the picturesque narrow and deep valleys of the rivers and by large brooks, such as the Partizanskayathe Kiyevkathe Zerkalnaya, the Cheryomukhovaya, the Yedinka, the Samargathe Bikinand the Bolshaya Ussurka.
Most rivers in the Krai have rocky bottoms and limpid water. The vast Khanka Lowlands extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, carpeted by coniferous-deciduous forests. A part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far EastKhanka Lakeis occupied by a forest-steppe. The krai's coastline is fairly straight, except for the southern-most section around Vladivostok which contains the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula There are numerous islands in this area, the main ones being Lisy IslandAskold Island, Putyatin Island la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai, Skrebtsov islandSibiryakov Islandthe Eugénie Archipelago the largest island of which being Russky Islandthe Rimsky-Korsakov Archipelago and Furugelm Island.
The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora. The territory of Primorye has not been subjected to the ice cover in the past in contrast to the rest of Siberia during the ice ages. This circumstance, as well as the specifics of the geographical la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai and the specific features of climate, determine the unique, diversity of the plant world at species and cenotic levels and the richness of plant resources.
In the flora of Primorye there are more than two thousand species of higher plants, of which are about species of trees, bushes and ligneous lianas. Flora of mosses and lichens are very diverse. As part of the coastal flora, there are many valuable medicinal, technical and food plants, many relict and endemic species. There are mountainous tundra areas, conifers and coniferous-deciduous forests, and forest-steppe, which is sometimes called the Far Eastern Prairie, where many ancient plant species have been preserved, including fernslotusand the Chosenia willow.
The flora of the territory contains such plants as Taxus cuspidataJuniperus rigidaPhellodendron amurenseKalopanaxAralia elataMaackia amurensisAlnus japonicaActinidia kolomiktaSchisandra chinensisCelastrus orbiculatusThladiantha dubiaWeigelaEleutherococcusFlueggea suffruticosaDeutziaNelumbo nuciferaBetula schmidtiiCarpinus cordataAcer mandshuricumParthenocissus tricuspidataVitis amurensisPanax ginseng and many others. The fauna of Primorye is also diverse. The following animals are found in the Krai : Ussuri black bear Ursus thibetanusAmur tigerAmur leopard Panthera pardus orientalisEurasian lynx Lynx lynxwild boar Sus scrofaManchurian deer Cervus elaphus xanthopygosSiberian roe deer Capreolus pygargusmusk deer Moschus moschiferuslong-tailed goral Naemorhedus caudatussika deer Cervus nipponsable Martes zibellinaBlakiston's fish owl Bubo blakistonimandarinka duck Aix galericulatablack stork Ciconia nigrascaly goosander Mergus squamatuschestnut-cheeked starling Sturnia philippensisblack griffon Aegypius monachuslarge-winged cuckoo Cuculidae familyand others.
Rich fisheries of salmonHucho taimenlenok and marine fisheries of crab, pollock and other species make the aquatic and maritime environment a valuable resource for the region. However, the rich diversity of wildlife in Primorye is threatened by poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. The area was settled by several Tungusic and Turkic tribes, such as the La codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Kraithe proto-Mongol Shiwei and the Mohe.
The Udege people are said to have traditionally settled in territories along the Bikin River long ago, however, they are possibly of Jianzhou Jurchen origin. During the Balhae Kingdommost of the krai were within boundaries of the provinces of Dingli, Anbian and Anyuan. It then came under the Mongol and Manchu rule. The acquisition of Siberia by the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian expansion to the Far East brought the Russians into direct contact with China.
The Nerchinsk Treaty of demarcating the borders of the two states gave all lands lying south of the Stanovoy Mountainsincluding Primorye, to the Qing Empire. However, with the weakening of the Qing Empire [ further explanation needed ] in the second half of the 19th century, Russia began its expansion into the area.
Inthe towns of Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk were founded. As a result of the two treaties, the Sino—Russian border shifted south to the Amur and Ussuri Riversgranting Russia full control of Primorye.
Primorskaya Oblast was established as the easternmost division of the Russian Empire in It included the territory of modern Primorsky Krai as well as the territories of modern Khabarovsk Krai and Magadan Oblaststretching from Vladivostok to the Chukchi Peninsula in the far north. In the period from to la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai, ninety-five settlements were established in the Primorye region, including Vladivostok, UssuriyskRazdolnoye, Vladimiro-Aleksandrovskoye, ShkotovoPokrovkaTury Rog, and Kamen-Rybolov.
The population was primarily engaged in hunting, fishing and cultivation. More than two-thirds of the territory's inhabitants followed these occupations.
During the latter part of the 19th century, there was significant resource, industrial and resulting economic development in Primorye. Coal mining became a prominent industry, as la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai the export of sea-kalevelvet antlerstimbercrabdried fishand trepangs. La codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai rapid economic expansion of Primorye was financed in large measure by Russian and foreign capital investment.
After the Russian Revolution and the victory of the communists, the new government renamed Primorskaya Oblast as the Zemstvo of Maritime Territory. It was defined as the Far-Eastern Republic — The area became a battleground for allied and Bolshevik troops during the Siberian Intervention. Inshortly before the end of the Civil WarPrimorye came under Bolshevik control. The new government directed the economic, scientific, and cultural development of the territory.
The Soviet Government spent the following ten years combating "bourgeois ideology" in many areas of life and culture.
As a result, the music, theater, literature, and the fine arts of Primorye were censored. Primorsky was the center of the ethnic Korean minority of Russia. The Pos'et Korean National Raion was created under the policy of korenizatsiya.
The Krai had both fully and mixed Korean towns where residents used the Korean language as an official language. Nearlyethnic Koreans were living in the Krai by the time of their deportation in During this period, the Soviet government emphasized centralized planning of the economy. As in the rest of the Soviet Union, priority was given to heavy industry, with a special emphasis on mining and commercial fishing.
There was widespread investment in construction of rail and sea transit, and new port facilities were constructed. Primorsky Krai was formed by further subdivision of Far-Eastern Krai inas part of the Stalin-era policy of "unbundling". Primorsky Krai, as defined incorresponds to the northeastern part of the historical region of Outer Manchuria. Japan and the Soviet Union were not then at war. During the s, the Soviet Union expanded scientific institutions in Primorye, especially in the city of Vladivostok.
By the early s, once-small enterprises in the city had developed into large companies. Numerous enterprises of the Russian military industrial complex were also established in Primorye. The Udege peopleled by Pavel Sulyandziga trying to gain control over their traditional territories along the Bikin River and in particular a Territory of Traditional Natural Resource Use of federal status. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Primorsky CPSU Committee who in reality had the biggest authoritythe chairman of the oblast Soviet legislative powerand the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee executive power.
The Charter of Primorsky Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai is the province's regional standing legislative representative body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it.
The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Primorsky Krai's economy, the most balanced in the Russian Far East, [ citation needed ] is also the largest in absolute terms. Food production is the most important sector, represented mainly by fish processing.
Annual catch exceeds two million tonnesor one half of the Russian Far East total. Second is machine buildingwhere half of the output is geared toward the fishing industry and shipyards. Defense is another important sector, producing naval vessels and military aircraft. The construction la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai industry here provides for the whole Russian Far East. Lead smelting is conducted in Rudnaya Pristan on the coast. The timber industry, though in recession[ when?
Primorsky Krai is the largest coal producer in the Russian Far East and generates more electricity than any other Russian Far East administrative division, but power shortages are common.
Agriculture is also important; the krai produces rice, milk, eggs, and vegetables. Primorsky Krai is the Russian Far East's banking and finance center.
It has more than banks and affiliates and well-developed futures and stock exchanges. The krai's proximity to Pacific Rim markets gives it an edge over most other Russian Far East administrative divisions in developing foreign trade. Major trade items are seafood products, timber products, and ferrous metals. Major trading partners are Japan, China, and South Korea. The economy will be further diversified with the addition of as many as 8 government sanctioned casinos to be built in the Primorye Gambling Zone, which encompasses the entire Primorsky Krai.
The development is expected to cost in the region of RUB Primorsky Krai's compact territory is well endowed la codificazione da alcool in Primorsky Krai infrastructure. Its railway density is twice the Russian average. Vladivostok, the eastern terminus of the Trans-Siberian railwaywas surpassed as a port by the nearby Nakhodka - Vostochny Port container, coal and timber terminals. All the krai's significant ports are now open to international shipping.
More than deposits of coal are known in Primorsky Krai. The commercial deposits of coal are connected to the Partizansky and Razdolnensky coal basins, the Podgorodnensky deposit, the Uglovsky basin, and the Shkotovsky, Pavlovsky, Bikinsky, Rettikhovsky, and Suputinsky deposits. Partizansky Basin : The city of Partizansk is located in the southern part of the basin. The basin has been known since the 19th century and has been explored since Five coal-bearing regions—Staropartizansky, Melnikovsky, Belopadinsky, Molchanovsky, and Sergeyevsky—are within the limits of the basin.
The coal is hard coal.