The dissolution of the Soviet Union [a] was the process of internal disintegration within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR which began in second half of the s with growing unrest in the national republics and ended on 26 Decemberwhen the USSR itself was voted out of existence by the Supreme Sovietfollowing the Belavezha Accords. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachevthe eighth and final leader of the USSRresigned, declared his office extinct and la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes —to Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
Previously, from August to December, all the individual republics, including Russia itself, had either seceded from the union or at the very least denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.
Several of the former Soviet republics have retained close links with the Russian Federation and formed multilateral organizations such as the Commonwealth of Independent StatesEurasian Economic Communitythe Union Statethe Eurasian Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union to enhance economic and security cooperation.
Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on March 11,three hours after predecessor Konstantin Chernenko 's death at age Gorbachev, aged 54, was the youngest member of the Politburo. His initial goal as general secretary was to revive the Soviet economyand he realized that doing so would require reforming underlying political la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar social structures.
This liberalizationhowever, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union. Under Gorbachev's leadership, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPSU in introduced limited competitive elections to a new la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar legislature, the Congress of People's Deputies  although the ban on other political parties was not lifted until In MayGorbachev delivered a speech in Leningrad advocating reforms and an anti-alcohol campaign to tackle widespread alcoholism.
Prices of vodka, wine, and beer were raised, which was intended to discourage drinking by increasing the cost of liquor. A rationing program was also introduced, where citizens were assigned punch cards la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar how much liquor they could buy in a certain time frame.
Unlike most forms of rationing, which is typically adopted as a strategy to conserve scarce goods, this was done to restrict sales with the overt goal of curtailing la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar.
This mirrored Tsar Nicholas II 's program during the First World War, which was intended to eradicate drunkenness in order to bolster the war effort. However, that earlier effort was also intended to preserve grain for only the most essential purposes, which did not appear to be a goal in Gorbachev's program. Gorbachev soon faced the same adverse economic reaction to his prohibition as did the last Tsar.
The disincentivization of alcohol consumption was a serious blow to the state budget according to Alexander La codificazione da alcool Pavlodarwho noted annual collections of alcohol taxes decreased by billion rubles. Alcohol sales migrated to the black market and moonshining became more prevalent as some made "bathtub vodka" with homegrown potatoes.
Poorer, less educated Soviets resorted to drinking unhealthy substitutes such as nail-polish remover, rubbing alcohol, or men's cologne, resulting in an additional burden on Russia's healthcare sector due to the increased la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar cases. On July 1,Gorbachev promoted Eduard ShevardnadzeFirst Secretary of the Georgian Communist Partyto full member of the Politburo, and the following day appointed him minister of foreign affairsreplacing longtime Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko.
La codificazione da alcool Pavlodar was la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar to the largely ceremonial position of Chairman la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet officially Soviet Head of Stateas he was considered an "old thinker". In the fall ofGorbachev continued to bring younger and more energetic men into government.
At la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar next Central Committee meeting on October 15, Tikhonov retired from the Politburo and Talyzin became a candidate. Gorbachev continued to press for greater liberalisation. On December 23,the most prominent Soviet dissident, Andrei Sakharovreturned to Moscow shortly after receiving a personal telephone call from Gorbachev telling him that after almost seven years his internal exile for defying the authorities was over.
The Baltic republics, forcibly reincorporated into the Soviet Union in pressed for independence, beginning with Estonia in November when the Estonian legislature passed laws resisting the control of the central government.
Its name refers to the human-rights statements of the Helsinki Accords. Helsinki was the first openly anti-Communist organization in the U. On December 26,in the early morning hours after a rock concert, working-class Latvian youths gathered in Riga's Cathedral Square and marched down Lenin Avenue toward the Freedom Monument, shouting, "Soviet Russia out!
Free Latvia! Protesters swelled to 1, then to 5, as other students joined the crowd. Clashes between the security forces and the demonstrators continued throughout the night in Almaty. On the next day, December 18, protests turned into civil unrest as clashes between troops, volunteers, militia units, and Kazakh students turned into a wide-scale confrontation.
The clashes could only be controlled on the third day. The Alma-Ata events were followed by smaller protests and demonstrations in ShymkentPavlodarKaragandaand Taldykorgan. Reports from Kazakh SSR authorities estimated that the riots drew 3, people.
Both of them had died due to blows to the head. About others were detained and several others were sentenced to terms in labor camps. The writer Mukhtar Shakhanov claimed that a KGB officer testified that protesters were killed, but that figure remains unconfirmed. At the January 28—30,Central Committee plenum, Gorbachev suggested a new policy of demokratizatsiya throughout Soviet society.
He proposed that future Communist Party elections should offer a choice between multiple candidates, elected by secret ballot. However, the CPSU delegates at the Plenum watered la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar Gorbachev's proposal, and democratic choice within the Communist Party was never significantly implemented. Gorbachev also radically expanded the scope of Glasnoststating that no subject was off-limits for open discussion in the media. Even so, the cautious Soviet intelligentsia took la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar a year to begin pushing the boundaries to see if he meant what he said.
For the first time, the Communist Party leader had appealed over the heads of Central Committee members for the people's support in exchange for expansion of liberties. The tactic proved successful: Within two years political reform could no longer be sidetracked by party conservatives. An unintended consequence was that having saved reform, Gorbachev's move ultimately killed the very system it was designed to save.
On February 7,dozens of political prisoners were freed in the first group release since the Khrushchev Thaw in the mids. The authorities did not break up the demonstration and even kept traffic out of the demonstrators' way while they marched to an impromptu meeting with Boris Yeltsin, head of the Moscow Communist Party and at the time one of Gorbachev's closest allies.
On September 10,after a lecture from hardliner Yegor Ligachev at the Politburo for allowing these two unsanctioned demonstrations in Moscow, Boris Yeltsin wrote a letter of resignation to Gorbachev, who had la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar holidaying on the Black Sea.
At the October 27, plenary meeting of the Central Committee, Yeltsin, frustrated that Gorbachev had not addressed any of the issues outlined in his resignation letter, criticized the slow pace of reform, servility to the general secretary, and opposition from Ligachev that had led to his Yeltsin's resignation.
Nevertheless, news of Yeltsin's insubordination and "secret speech" spread, and soon samizdat versions began to circulate. This marked the beginning of Yeltsin's rebranding as a rebel and rise in popularity as an anti-establishment figure. The following four years of political struggle between Yeltsin and Gorbachev played a large role in the dissolution of the USSR.
On August 23,la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar 48th anniversary of the secret protocols of the Molotov Pact between Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin that ultimately turned the then-independent Baltic states over to the Soviet Union, thousands of demonstrators marked the occasion in the three Baltic capitals to sing independence songs and attend speeches commemorating Stalin's victims. The gatherings were sharply denounced in the official press and closely watched by the police but were not interrupted.
On June 14,about 5, people gathered again at Freedom Monument in Rigaand laid flowers to commemorate the anniversary of Stalin 's mass deportation of Latvians in This was the first large demonstration in the Baltic republics to commemorate the anniversary of an event contrary to official Soviet history. The authorities did not crack down on demonstrators, which encouraged more and larger demonstrations throughout the Baltic States. The next major anniversary after the August 23 Molotov Pact demonstration was on November 18, the date of Latvia's independence in On November 18,hundreds of police and civilian militiamen cordoned off the central square to prevent any demonstration at Freedom Monument, but thousands lined the streets of Riga in silent protest regardless.
In springa protest movement arose against new phosphate mines in Estonia. Signatures were collected in Tartuand students assembled in the university's main hall to express lack of confidence in the government. At a demonstration on May 1,young people showed up with banners and slogans despite an official ban. Initially geared toward economic independence, then toward a certain amount of political autonomy, the project, Isemajandav Eesti "A Self-Managing Estonia" became known according to its Estonian acronym, IME, which means "miracle".
On October 21, a demonstration dedicated to those who gave their lives in the — Estonian War of Independence took place in Võru, which culminated in a conflict with the militia.
For the first time in years, the blue, black, and white national tricolor was publicly displayed. First anti-Soviet protests in Lithuania took place on August 23, On October 17,about 3, Armenians demonstrated in Yerevan complaining about the condition of Lake Sevanthe Nairit chemicals plant, and the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plantand air pollution in Yerevan. Police tried to prevent the protest but took no action to stop it once the march was underway. The march originated at the Opera Plaza after speakers, mainly intellectuals, addressed the crowd.
The following day 1, Armenians participated in another demonstration calling for Armenian national rights in Karabagh. The demonstrators demanded the annexation of Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia, and carried placards to that effect. The police tried to physically prevent the march and after a few incidents, dispersed the demonstrators. Nagorno-Karabakh would break out in violence the following year. In la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar, Gorbachev started to lose control of two regions of the Soviet Union, as the Baltic republics were now leaning towards independence, and the Caucasus descended into violence and civil war.
On July 1,the fourth and last day of a bruising 19th Party Conference, Gorbachev won the backing of the tired delegates for his last-minute proposal to create a new supreme legislative body called the Congress of People's Deputies. Frustrated by the old guard's resistance, Gorbachev embarked on a set of constitutional changes to attempt separation of party and state, thereby isolating his conservative Party opponents.
Detailed proposals for the new Congress of People's Deputies were published on La codificazione da alcool Pavlodar 2, and to enable the creation of the new legislature. The Supreme Soviet, during its November 29 — December 1,session, implemented amendments to the Soviet Constitutionenacted a law on electoral reform, and set the date of the election for March 26, On November 29,the Soviet Union ceased to jam all foreign radio stations, allowing Soviet citizens for la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar first time since a brief period in the s to have unrestricted access to news sources beyond Communist Party control.
In andLatvia had been in the vanguard of the Baltic states in pressing for reform. In Estonia took over the lead role with the foundation of the Soviet Union's first popular front and starting to influence state policy.
The Estonian Popular Front was founded in April On October 2, the Popular Front formally launched its political platform at a two-day congress. Väljas attended, gambling that the front could help Estonia become a model of economic and political revival, la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar moderating separatist and other radical tendencies.
The Latvian Popular Front was founded in June In October Vagris bowed to pressure from the Latvian Popular Front and legalized flying the former carmine red-and-white flag of independent Latvia, and on October 6 he passed a law making Latvian the country's official language. On February 22,in what became known as the " Askeran clash ", thousands of Azerbaijanis marched towards Nagorno-Karabakh, demanding information about rumors of an Azerbaijani having been killed in Stepanakert.
They were informed that no such incident had occurred, but refused to believe it. Dissatisfied with what they were told, thousands began marching toward Nagorno-Karabakhmassacring 50 Armenian villagers in the process. These deaths, announced on state radio, led to the Sumgait Pogrom. Between February 26 and March 1, the city of Sumgait Azerbaijan saw violent anti-Armenian rioting during which 32 people were killed.
The authorities totally lost control and la codificazione da alcool Pavlodar the city with paratroopers and tanks; nearly all of the 14, Armenian residents of Sumgait fled. Gorbachev refused to make any changes to the status of Nagorno Karabakh, which remained part of Azerbaijan. From July 23 to Septembera group of Azerbaijani intellectuals began working for a new organization called the Popular Front of Azerbaijanloosely based on the Estonian Popular Front. On December 5,the Soviet militia moved in, cleared the square by force, and imposed a curfew that lasted ten months.
The rebellion of fellow Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh had an immediate effect in Armenia itself. Daily demonstrations, which began in the Armenian capital Yerevan on February 18, initially attracted few people, but each day the Nagorno-Karabakh issue became increasingly prominent and numbers swelled.