Alcoholismalso known as alcohol use disorder AUDis a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results lalcolismo come ipnotizzare mental or physical health problems. Environmental factors and genetics are two components associated with alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each. Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing inexpensive treatment. The World Health Organization estimates that as of there were million people with alcoholism worldwide 4.
The risk of alcohol dependence begins lalcolismo come ipnotizzare low levels of drinking and increases directly with both the volume of alcohol consumed and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasionto the point of intoxication, which is sometimes called "binge drinking".
Young adults are particularly at risk of engaging in binge drinking. The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a lalcolismo come ipnotizzare strong urge to drink alcohol. These characteristics play a role in decreasing an alcoholic's ability to stop drinking. A depressed mood is a common symptom of heavy alcohol drinkers. Warning signs of alcoholism include the consumption of increasing amounts of alcohol and frequent intoxication, preoccupation with drinking to the exclusion of other activities, promises to quit drinking and failure to keep those promises, the inability to remember what was said or done while drinking colloquially known as "blackouts"lalcolismo come ipnotizzare changes associated with drinking, denial or the making of excuses for drinking, the refusal to admit excessive drinking, dysfunction or other problems at work or school, the loss of interest in personal appearance or hygiene, marital and economic problems, and the complaint of poor health, with loss of appetite, respiratory infections, or increased anxiety.
Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration BAC of 0. A BAC of 0. A BAC from 0. With all alcoholic beverages, drinking lalcolismo come ipnotizzare drivingoperating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the lalcolismo come ipnotizzare of an accident; many countries have penalties for drunk driving. Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressureatrial fibrillationand stroke.
Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing lalcolismo come ipnotizzare diseasemalabsorptionalcoholic liver diseaseand several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur lalcolismo come ipnotizzare sustained alcohol consumption. Women develop long-term complications of lalcolismo come ipnotizzare dependence more rapidly than do men.
Additionally, women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men. Additionally, heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women. This results in reproductive dysfunction such as anovulationdecreased ovarian mass, lalcolismo come ipnotizzare or irregularity of the menstrual cycleand early menopause. Equal dosages of alcohol consumed lalcolismo come ipnotizzare men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations BACssince women generally have a higher percentage of body fat and therefore a lower volume of distribution for alcohol than men, and because the stomachs of men tend to metabolize alcohol more quickly.
Long-term misuse of alcohol can cause a wide range of mental health problems. Severe cognitive problems are common; approximately 10 percent of all dementia lalcolismo come ipnotizzare are related to alcohol consumption, making it the second leading cause of dementia.
The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers. The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms lalcolismo come ipnotizzare anxiety and depression disorders. Psychiatric symptoms usually initially worsen during alcohol withdrawal, but typically improve or disappear with continued abstinence. The co-occurrence of major depressive disorder and alcoholism is well documented.
Women who have alcohol-use disorders often have a co-occurring psychiatric diagnosis such as major depressionanxietypanic disorderbulimiapost-traumatic stress disorder PTSDlalcolismo come ipnotizzare borderline personality disorder.
Serious social problems arise from alcoholism; these dilemmas are caused by the pathological changes in the brain and the intoxicating effects of alcohol. Drinking at inappropriate times and behavior caused by reduced judgment can lead to lalcolismo come ipnotizzare consequences, such as criminal charges for drunk driving  or public disorder, or civil penalties for tortious behavior, and may lead to a criminal sentence.
An alcoholic's lalcolismo come ipnotizzare and mental impairment while drunk can profoundly affect those surrounding him and lead to isolation from family and friends. This isolation can lead to marital conflict and divorceor contribute to domestic violence. Lalcolismo come ipnotizzare can also lead to child neglectwith subsequent lasting damage to the emotional development of the alcoholic's children.
For example, they can become afraid of their parents, because of their unstable mood behaviors. In addition, they can develop considerable amount of shame over their inadequacy to liberate their parents from alcoholism. As a result of this failure, lalcolismo come ipnotizzare develop wretched self-images, which can lead to depression.
As with similar substances with a sedative-hypnotic mechanism, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepineswithdrawal from alcohol dependence can be lalcolismo come ipnotizzare if it is not properly managed.
Lalcolismo come ipnotizzare repeated heavy consumption of alcohol, these receptors are lalcolismo come ipnotizzare and reduced in number, resulting in tolerance and physical dependence. When alcohol consumption is stopped lalcolismo come ipnotizzare abruptly, the person's lalcolismo come ipnotizzare system suffers from uncontrolled synapse firing.
This can result in symptoms that include anxietylife-threatening seizuresdelirium tremenshallucinations, shakes and possible heart failure. Severe acute withdrawal symptoms such as delirium tremens and seizures rarely occur after 1-week post cessation of alcohol. The acute withdrawal phase can be defined as lasting between one and three weeks.
In the period of 3—6 weeks following cessation increased anxiety, depression, as well as sleep disturbance, is common;  fatigue and tension can persist for up lalcolismo come ipnotizzare 5 weeks as part of the post-acute withdrawal syndrome ; about a quarter of alcoholics experience anxiety and depression for up to 2 years.
These post-acute withdrawal symptoms have also been demonstrated in animal models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. A kindling effect also occurs in alcoholics whereby each subsequent withdrawal syndrome is more severe than the previous withdrawal episode; this is due to neuroadaptations which occur as a result of periods of abstinence followed by re-exposure to alcohol.
Individuals who have had multiple withdrawal episodes are more likely to develop seizures and experience more severe anxiety during withdrawal from alcohol than alcohol-dependent individuals without a lalcolismo come ipnotizzare of past alcohol withdrawal episodes.
The kindling effect lalcolismo come ipnotizzare to persistent functional changes in brain neural circuits as well as to gene expression. For example, the CIWA-Ar objectifies alcohol withdrawal symptoms in order to guide therapy decisions which allows for an efficient interview while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity, and reliability, ensuring proper care for withdrawal patients, who can be in danger of death.
A complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors influences the risk of the development of alcoholism. It is not entirely clear whether this association is causal, and some researchers have been known to disagree with this view. Severe childhood trauma is also associated lalcolismo come ipnotizzare a general increase in the risk of drug dependency.
Cortical degeneration due to the neurotoxic effects increases impulsive behaviour, which may contribute to the development, persistence and severity of alcohol use disorders. There is evidence that with abstinence, there is a reversal of lalcolismo come ipnotizzare least some of the alcohol induced central nervous system damage. Alcohol is the most available, widely consumed, and widely abused recreational drug.
Beer alone is the world's most widely consumed  alcoholic beverage ; it is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea. Males had higher rates than females for all measures of drinking in the past month: any alcohol use Genetic differences that exist between different racial groups affect the risk of developing alcohol dependence.
For example, there are lalcolismo come ipnotizzare between African, East Asian and Indo-racial groups in how they metabolize alcohol. These genetic factors partially explain the differing rates of alcohol dependence among racial groups. African Americans and Native Americans with this allele have a reduced risk of developing alcoholism. Misuse, problem use, abuse, and heavy use lalcolismo come ipnotizzare alcohol refer to improper use of alcohol, which may cause physical, social, or moral harm to the drinker.
According to the NIAAA, men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption exceeds 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day, and women may be at risk if they have more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day. It defines a standard drink as one ounce bottle of beer, one 5-ounce glass of lalcolismo come ipnotizzare, or 1.
An inference drawn from this study is that evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services may effectively reduce binge drinking without requiring addiction treatment in most lalcolismo come ipnotizzare. The term alcoholism is commonly used amongst laypeople, but the word is poorly defined. The WHO calls alcoholism "a term of long-standing use and variable meaning", and use of the term was disfavored by a WHO expert committee.
The Big Book from Alcoholics Anonymous states that once a person is an alcoholic, they are always an alcoholic, but does not lalcolismo come ipnotizzare what is meant by the term alcoholic in this context. InBill W. In professional and research contexts, the term "alcoholism" sometimes encompasses both alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence,  and sometimes is considered equivalent to alcohol dependence.
Talbot observes that alcoholism in the classical disease model follows a progressive course: if a person continues to drink, their condition will worsen. This will lead to harmful consequences in their life, physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. He looks at this in four phases. The first two are considered "normal" drinking and the last two are viewed as "typical" alcoholic drinking. They describe the process in three stages:.
The terms they recommend are similar but not identical. In part, this is to assist in the development of research lalcolismo come ipnotizzare in which findings can be compared to one another. According to the DSM-IV, an alcohol dependence diagnosis is: "maladaptive alcohol use with clinically significant impairment as manifested by at least three of the following within any one-year period: tolerance; withdrawal; taken in greater amounts or over longer time course than intended; desire or unsuccessful attempts to cut down or control use; great deal of time spent obtaining, using, or lalcolismo come ipnotizzare from use; social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced; continued use despite knowledge of physical or psychological sequelae.
Init was defined by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence NCADD and ASAM as "a primary, chronic disease characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking. AA describes alcoholism as an illness that involves a physical allergy  : 28 where "allergy" has a different meaning than that lalcolismo come ipnotizzare in modern medicine.
William D. Silkworth M. Morton Jellinek is considered the foundation of the modern disease theory of alcoholism. The modern medical definition of alcoholism has been revised numerous times since then. The American Medical Association uses the word lalcolismo come ipnotizzare to refer to a particular chronic primary disease.
Attitudes and social stereotypes can create barriers lalcolismo come ipnotizzare the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. This is more of a barrier for women than men. Fear of stigmatization may lead women to deny that they are suffering from a medical condition, to hide their drinking, and to drink alone.
This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be less likely to suspect that a woman they know is an alcoholic.
This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be more likely to suspect that a man they know is an alcoholic. Lalcolismo come ipnotizzare is recommended lalcolismo come ipnotizzare those lalcolismo come ipnotizzare the age of These tools are mostly self-reports in questionnaire lalcolismo come ipnotizzare.
Another common theme is a score or tally that sums up the general severity of alcohol use. The CAGE questionnairenamed for its four questions, is one such example that may be used to screen patients quickly in a doctor's office.
Other tests are sometimes used for the detection of alcohol dependence, such as the Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnairewhich is a more sensitive diagnostic test than the CAGE questionnaire.
It helps distinguish a diagnosis of alcohol dependence from one lalcolismo come ipnotizzare heavy alcohol use.
Like the CAGE questionnaire, it uses a simple set lalcolismo come ipnotizzare questions — a high score earning a deeper investigation. There are reliable tests for the actual use of alcohol, one common test being that of blood alcohol content BAC. With regard to alcoholism, BAC is useful to judge alcohol tolerancewhich in turn is a sign of alcoholism.