I contributi di questa pubblicazione sono stati sottoposti alla valutazione di due Peer Reviewers in forma rigorosamente anonima. Letizia Lanza parte seconda Pseudorelativsätze vs. Relativsätze im Frühneuhochdeutschen und im Neuhochdeutschen: Syntax, Semantik und kommunikative Funktion.
Riflessioni e linee di ricerca. Daniela Vaccaro La battaglia del frontespizio e la percezione della traduzione Cristina Gaetani Liseo. Traduzione come creazione poetica.
I sonetti di Veronica Gambara nella versione tedesca di Martin Opitz. Introduzione Questo numero si compone di due parti distinte. La seconda sezione del volume riunisce articoli di varia natura, ai quali fanno seguito cinque recensioni e le tradizionali rassegne.
The question of the origin of language and especially clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk the relationship between words and the things they denote is a problem which taxed ancient thinkers in the Greco-Roman world and is one which has still found no unanimous explanation from modern linguistic science.
In the past the church has forbidden any discussion of the problem outside the account of the Tower of Babel in Genesis and for many years, until the beginning of the last century the topic was banned from discussion by the British Linguistics Society on the grounds that too many mad and fanciful theories were being proposed with no way of checking or testing them.
It is nevertheless a central question for anyone tracing the development of our own species, homo sapiens, and at last in recent years it has started to receive more attention from biologists and anthropologists. The aim of this paper is to follow the main strands of this ancient tradition and to juxtapose these ideas with modern theories on the subject. As will become apparent, in many respects modern linguistic science has not progressed much further than the ideas to be found in ancient speculation on this important subject.
As the dialogue opens, Cratylus, a follower of Heraclitus, is arguing for a natural connection between the sound of a word and the object or concept it describes, and says that this is true of the language of both Greeks and foreigners: ERM. Plato Cratylus a-b. His opponent Hermogenes says that on the contrary names are simply arbitrary and are assigned by convention.
For this reason Greeks differ amongst themselves and with barbarians about the names for things: ERM. For it seems to me that whatever name you give to a thing is its correct name; and if you change it for another one and no longer call it by the first name, the later name is no less correct than the earlier, just as we change the name of our servants; for no name belongs to any particular thing by nature, but rather by the habit and custom of those who establish the usage and call it so.
Plato Cratylus ea SOCRATES: It is not then, Hermogenes, for every man to give names, but for a certain name-maker; and he, it seems, is the law-giver, who is the rarest of all artisans among men. Things have names by nature and the role of this name-maker is to understand the true nature or form of each thing and to embody it in letters and syllables: Clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk. And Cratylus is right in saying that things have names by nature and that not every man is an artisan of names, but only the man who keeps in view the name which each thing has by nature and is able to put its form into letters and syllables.
Plato Cratylus b-c SOCRATES: We are most likely to find correct names in the case of eternal and immutable essences; for the greatest care should have been given to the imposition of their names and perhaps some of them were given by a power more divine than that of men. Furthermore just as a tool can be made out of clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk than one kind of metal, so different sounds clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk be used in different languages to embody the same concept: SW.
SOCRATES: Then, my good friend, ought not our law-giver to know how clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk put the name which is naturally fitted for each object into sounds and syllables? Ought he not to make and give all names with his eye fixed on the ideal name, if he is to be clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk authoritative name-giver?
And if different law-givers do not put it into the same syllables, we should nevertheless not be ignorant of the ideal name for that sake.
For different smiths do not embody a form clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk the same iron, although making the same instrument for the same purpose. So long as they reproduce the same ideal, even though it may be in different iron, still the instrument is as it should be, whether they make it here or in foreign lands. Is that not so? Finally just as a carpenter making a rudder has to be supervised by a steersman, who will use it, so the law-giver, making a name must be clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk by a dialectician, the name-user par excellence: SW.
Starting with Homeric names he then works through a series of cosmological, theological, physical and finally ethical items to illustrate his point. Plato Cratylus c. Up until this point Plato has been genuine in his presupposition, shared with most of his contemporaries, that the words coined by early members of the human race and by modern name makers in some way encoded descriptions of the things they named by a form of sound symbolism.
The etymologies of the central section are not, as some scholars used to think, intended to make fun of etymological speculation, for such speculation is clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk serious and ubiquitous feature of ancient literature. In fact Plato himself often. However, he is aware of the limitations of such speculation from the point of view of discovering philosophical truth.
They were, however, less successful in naming moral and intellectual virtues, the very area of ethics that Plato is most interested in investigating and for which the theory of unchanging Forms provides a better guide to philosophical truth than etymological study. Cratylus is made to admit there are a number of ways in which the original naming process may have been defective. First, the name giver may sometimes have been successful in his imitation of the nature of things through letters and syllables, but on other occasions he constructed the name incorrectly by adding or taking away sounds: SW.
By the same principle, if he gives all that is appropriate, the image — that is to say, the name — will be good, and if he sometimes clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk or adds a little, it will be an image, but not a good one; and therefore some names are well and others badly made. Is that not true? Secondly, the ancients who gave names may have had false beliefs about the things they were naming: SW.
See D. Can we help being deceived? Furthermore the original forms of ancient names change over time so that, in some cases, the original intention of the name giver becomes obscured c-d: SW. Plato Cratylus c-d SOCRATES: My dear friend, you have forgotten that the original words have long ago been clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk by people who clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk to dress them up, adding and subtracting letters for the sake of euphony and distorting them in every way for ornamentation or merely through the lapse of time.
This sort of thing is the work of people who have no care for truth, but think only of the shape of their mouths; so they keep adding to the original words so that finally no human being can understand what the word means. So the sphinx, for example, is called sphinx instead of phix, and clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk are many other examples. Finally the connection between individual sounds and concepts does not always work as suggested in the first part of the dialogue.
Does it not express the opposite of hardness? The conclusion to which Cratylus must be drawn is then that both convention and imitation must have some role to play in the relation of sound to sense.
This view is expressed most clearly in the opening of his work De Interpretatione. Aristotle De Interp. Aristotle De Caelo 1. Perhaps, if pressed, Aristotle would have been willing, like Plato clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk the Cratylus, to admit that although an element of convention had a role to play in naming, divinely inspired naming, based on the nature of the nominatum, could sometimes provide information in scientific and philosophical investigations.
One figure, who like Hermogenes, appears to have stood out against the natural theory of language was Democritus, the atomist and elder contemporary of Plato.
According to Proclus In Plat. Epicurus Letter to Herodotus Diogenes Laertius Also, the men who shared knowledge introduced certain unseen entities, and brought words for them into usage, some because they had been compelled to utter them and others they had chosen by reasoning and thus articulated according to the most widely held assumption.
Here Epicurus proposes the clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk, which has striking parallels with some modern ideas, that language started as animal cries provoked in humans by their perception of objects and only at a later stage were these sounds correlated to objects in a systematic way by conventional agreement between men. This account involves a three-stage development of language: 1.
Sounds are produced by people interacting directly with their environment. Reason is applied to these sounds and produces words with mutually agreed meanings. Names for abstract entities are invented by intellectuals. In Lucretius where the theory of language origin is concentrated in two lines, we have nature clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk men to emit sounds and then usefulness utilitas turning these sounds into the names of things.
Lucretius 5. It organises confused sounds and turns them into words Epicurus stages 1 and 2. Cicero then goes on to add the invention of writing, which turned the sounds of words into written signs: eademque cum accepisset homines inconditis uocibus inchoatum quiddam et confusum sonantes, incidit has et distinxit in partis et ut signa quaedam sicut uerba rebus inpressit hominesque antea dissociatos iucundissimo inter se sermonis uinclo conligauit.
A simili etiam mente uocis, clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk uidebantur infiniti, soni paucis notis inuentis sunt omnes signati et expressi, quibus et conloquia cum absentibus et indicia uoluntatum et monumenta rerum praeteritarum tenerentur. Cicero De Republica 3. But since groups of this kind arose over every part of the inhabited world, not all men had the same language, inasmuch as every group organised the elements of its speech by mere chance.
Vitruvius ties the invention of language with the discovery of fire and moves from a stage of gesturing, clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk the construction of language out of incoherent sounds. He shares with Lucretius an clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk on the role of usefulness utilitates in the development of a communication system: accedentes cum animaduertissent commoditatem esse magnam corporibus ad ignis teporem, ligna adicientes et id conseruantes alios adducebant et nutu monstrantes ostendebant, quas haberent ex eo utilitates.
In eo hominum congressu cum profundebantur aliter e spiritu uoces, cotidiana consuetudine uocabula, ut optigerant, constituerunt, deinde significando res saepius in usu ex euentu fari fortuito coeperunt. Vitruvius 2. Here is a quotation from a book written clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk this subject in by Peter Macneilage: Some sound pattern must have clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk produced in the presence of the entity for which we had a conceptual representation leading someone, and eventually many people, to take, by convention, the sound pattern to signify the concept.
The question is, what were the circumstances that led to a particular sound pattern being produced in the presence of the entity for which presumably two observers had a common conceptual structure? Vitruvius begins with a stage of gesturing as a preliminary to the use of sounds as symbols. With a gesture, for example the flapping of the arms clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk the presence of a bird, there is a clear natural relation, an iconicity, between the concept and clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk symbol.
In the case of vocal symbols no such iconicity exists in most cases, except for onomatopoeic words like splash or cuckoo where the sound of the word imitates the sound made by the object named. However, according to Macneilage it is possible to see how gesturing while simultaneously vocalising would eventually lead to a stage where the vocalising alone, without the gesture, could represent the object. Modern historical linguistics, however, usually has very little to say about this important question of how words began.
If, as anthropologists suggest, language began some 70, years ago, roughly at the time of the emigration of our ancestors from Africa, this is some twenty times more distant in the past than the process of modern linguistic reconstruction dares to go. Dixon for example is unwilling and unable by modern methods of linguistic reconstruction from known written forms of language to trace individual words back more than three or four thousand years.
Two daring individuals, Bengston and Ruhlen did, however, go as far clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk to posit a list of 27 possible proto-words, words that would go back to the creation of language, on the basis clinica a codificazione da alcolismo Omsk similar forms were widely spread over a large group of otherwise unrelated languages. But their approach was shown by Boe et al.
Given the speed of linguistic phonetic change all these forms, it was argued, could just as well have come about by chance. Perhaps more promising is a modern approach that sees baby-talk as reflecting the early stage of human language development. Ferguson considered items of baby talk in six languages.
He found that the words involved, which varied from 25 to 60 items per language, shared a number of characteristics: kin items —mama, papa, simple prohibitions a a, greetings bye bye, bodily functions, wee wee. The actual phonetic shape of the words resembled that of early non-linguistic babbling.
Consonant vowel ma was preferred to vowel consonant am. Is baby talk a separate genre from real language? There is in fact some overlap between the two. Mama and papa correspond, for example to the PIE forms ma-ter and pa-ter where the —ter suffix denotes kinship, as in brother, sister, daughter and so on. One further point of contact between baby language and real language in this context was that the name for the female parent had a nasal consonant ma- or similar- in all six languages studied by Ferguson, whereas words for the male parent had oral consonant like pa- in all six.
Can we push the case for these child words occurring early in human linguistic development any further? Jacobson explains the nasal consonant in mother words as being associated with sucking and nasal murmuring, whereas the oral consonant pa- in father words is associated with food.