First draft, revised and corrected. Ó Conchubhair. The electronic text represents the edited text. Editorial corrections and expansions are marked. Text in Latin is indicated. Names are capitalized in line with CELT practice. In the manuscript, spaces were left for large initials which remained unfilled later. The editorial variants 'potage' and 'pottage' have been left intact. Soft hyphens are silently removed. When a hyphenated word hard or soft crosses a page-break, this break is marked after completion of the hyphenated word.
For better searchability, words straddling a manuscript folio break have been moved back or forward to keep the medicina Colm simile intact. Proper names, titles of books as well as medical, botanical, pharmaceutical and some anatomical terms are tagged. This text uses the DIV3 element to represent the subsection. Language: [LA] Many medicina Colm simile and phrases are in Latin. Language: [GR] Some terms and phrases are in Greek, or derived from it.
Language: [EN] Introduction and notes are in English. Language: [FR] One phrase in the introduction is in French. Revision History Beatrix Färber ed. But he was also a scholar, fluent in modern and old Irish, with a lifelong passion for music, literature, botany, history, and philosophy. The Materia Medicina Colm simile testifies not only to the close relations that existed between the learned classes of Gaelic Ireland and medieval Europe, but also to the sophistication of the pharmacology and medical training in fifteenth century Gaelic society.
Medicina Colm simile family was keen that his scholarship should not go to waste but would be medicina Colm simile to assist others interested in further researching this important medicina Colm simile.
We were very fortunate at the time to make contact with Prof. His family certainly regard it as such and sincerely thank all medicina Colm simile those involved in the project. The author and his sources. Ó Cuinn 's principal source, and the work whose format he followed, was the Liber de simplici medicinausually known, from the opening words of the introduction, as Circa Instans. Joannes Platearius is named as the author of Circa Instans in the early printed versions of the text.
Medicina Colm simile Sartonii refers to Joannes Platearius the Youngerwho lived in the second half of the eleventh century, and p. Circa Instans is a list of more than simple i. Claus H. Wölfel printed the copy of the text which is preserved medicina Colm simile Erlangen, and Beck studied the three earliest known manuscripts, that of Breslau, which was written aboutthat in Vienna, which was written at latest aboutand that in Erlangen, which was written between and Beck finds so many points of resemblance to the Liber de gradibus of Constantine the African, monk of Monte Cassinoand to the Corpus Hippocraticum, that he feels that these, together with Arabic works similar to Abu Mansur's Liber fundamentorum pharmacologiaewere the main sources of the text.
Schuster's own contribution was p. I have relied principally on the medicina Colm simile of Circa Instans which was printed in Venice medicina Colm similesupplemented by Wölfel 's Erlangen text and by the substantial extracts from Circa Instans which Rufinus included in his herbal in the 13th century. The version is likely to be the closest to the text that Ó Cuinn had before him. Another text that is of assistance is the Tractatus de herbis.
What appears to be the original is contained in the 14th-century MS Egerton in the British Library. The Tractatus was compiled by Bartholomeus Mino da Sienaof whom nothing is known except that he is described in the Explicit as an medicina Colm simile in the spicer's art.
The text is accompanied by illustrations of the plants discussed. Later copies of the Tractatus are medicina Colm simile in three other manuscripts, including MS Lat. I have used this Modena copy. The greatest of medicina Colm simile recent contributions to our knowledge of Circa Instans is the facsimile edition of the 15th century manuscript, p.
This medicina Colm simile an account believed to have been written early in the 11th century, in Latin hexameter verse, of the medicinal uses of some 77 plants.
The author's real name is believed to have p. Occasional use was made by Ó Cuinn of the Liber dietarum particularium which was written by Ysaac Israeli or Isaac Iudaeus who lived in Egypt medicina Colm simile who died in Tunis about the middle of the tenth century. He was one of the first of the distinguished Jews who were prominent in spreading Arabic science, especially medicine, to the Western Arabic territories. He was trained as a physician in Baghdad, where he studied Greek medicine and was in touch with the work done there in the translation and exposition of the Greek authorities.
Some of his references to Galen are carried by Ó Cuinn into his own text. His treatise on urine is regarded as the best medieval work on the subject.
Ysaac 's p. Some use was also made of Book 2, the Liber aggregatus de medicinis singularibus of Avicenna 's Canon de medicina. He died in in Hamadhan. His Book of the Healing was a major influence on European philosophy and science until Aristotle 's works became generally known. Medicina Colm simile Canon of Medicine was the medical textbook most used in Europe for some five centuries. Book 2 of the Canon consists of a list of simple medicines, arranged in alphabetical order, with an account of each one.
I have used the translation from Arabic into Medicina Colm simile which was made in Toledo by Gerard of Cremonawho died inas printed by Petrus Maufer in Venice in It will be necessary to check Serapion 's book as a possible source for some of medicina Colm simile Irish text. Very little is known of Serapion except that he lived probably in the 12th century, and that he was a physician who wrote in Arabic and who may p.
Reference is made in the text to a number of other authorities, AlexanderAverrhoesConstantineDioscoridesMesueGalenGillibertinusHippocratesRhasesbut it may be taken that these references except, perhaps, in the case of Rhases were all derived by the Irish author medicina Colm simile the versions he used of the five main sources above described.
There is a number of items in the text for which no Latin sources have been found, and it is suggested in Chapter 4 that some of these may represent a purely Irish tradition. This Materia Medica is of a high standard. At a rough check, it appears that, of the plant simples and 29 plant products discussed, some two thirds are mentioned in the 12th edition of the Pharmacognosy of Trease and Evans as being relevant still or until recently, and another 15 were and are of nutritional value.
That the author discusses only those drugs which he knew to be in use, is indicated by the drugs which are discussed in the Erlangen copy of Circa Instansbut which are not referred to in the Irish version. Of the 38 such drugs, 33 are foreign and obviously hard to come by, and only five are plants that occur in the Irish flora. The author was p. The text appears to be no slavish rendering of the voice of ancient authority, but a sensible selection of information believed to be medicina Colm simile practical use.
It indicates the ailments that were known in the country at the time, and the drugs that were used in treating them. Written on vellum and completed in by Donnchadh Ó Bolgaidiwith two or three unidentified collaborators.
The manuscript medicina Colm simile a considerable amount of material on medical topics, including valuable copies of some legal tracts relating to medical practice. Nessa Ni Shéaghdha says, Cat, i 66, that parts of the manuscript may have been written at p. This is a fairly full copy of the text, containing articles. It was made in the fifteenth century. The scribe gives his medicina Colm simile as Gilla Coluimand he indicates that he worked from the text as taken down by Gilla Padraic Ó Callanain from the author's dictation.
Gilla Coluim does not indicate where the copy was made, but it has been in Scotland since at least the seventeenth century. The names of the plants are written in the margin in English, evidently by John Beaton, who wrote his name on folio 53b in On folio 85a he writes: E[oin] M'Bh[eathadh] MacKinnon, in his Catalogue of Medicina Colm simile MSS in Scotland, prints extracts from Articles in this manuscript corresponding to our Chapters 92,andand he gives the scribe's colophon at the end of the text in full.
It will be necessary to check the Glossary herein with John Beaton's English plant names. Is this part of our MM? Farquhar was physician to the Medicina Colm simile of medicina Colm simile Isles, and he was, in his time, possessor of the well-made copy of the Irish Lilium Medicinae which is described by MacKinnon on p. MS The handwriting in MS will need to be examined to see if it bears out the statement in MacKinnon p.
It contains of the chapters in the H. The headings of the chapters medicina Colm simile printed by Stokesand O' Grady has, in the BM Catalogue, edited and translated extracts from the MS corresponding to our Chapters 36, 49, 62,andas well as chapters on caraway carui and Spanish flies Cantarides that are not in H. Iveaghmedicina Colm simile in Co. He seems to have belonged to the branch of the O'Shiels who medicina Colm simile physicians to the MacMahons of Oriel.
In his paper ofStokes includes a medical glossary from this MS. According to N. Cork, in This may be of interest for the names of the plants.
It fortuned after, that a farm a superior title was given to the said Piers by the said prior and convent. The following Easter, Piers attempted to compel Muiris to take with him his madder out of the said garden, without giving him due notice.
The Irish text is, as the formal title of its principal source, Circa Instansindicates, a book of medicina Colm simile simple medicines. However, a number of compound medicines are mentioned in the course of the text, and all of those mentioned below except diaeringe, diaturbit and scilleticum are included in the Medicina Colm simile of Nicolauswhich was widely medicina Colm simile for some centuries.
Nicolaus Salernitanus compiled his Antidotarium spelt Antidotarius in the printing I used early in the twelfth century, at a time when the medical community of Salerno was at its most productive. Talbot describes this book as an antidotary transmitted by Greek and Latin writers with additions and modifications imported from Arabic sourcesp.
It consists of a collection of recipes for standard compound medicines. Trease and Hodson suggest that Hexham must have purchased some of his materials ready made, and that there may have been an p. In the Trinity College medicina Colm simile, H.
The distillation of alcohol was still in its early stages in this country in Tadhg Ó Cuinn 's time, and it is unlikely that the making of a medicina Colm simile whiskey medicina Colm simile malted barley and other cereals was achieved until somewhat later in the 15th century.