A ha-ha French : hâ-hâ ha lalcolismo saut de loup is a recessed landscape design element that creates a vertical barrier while preserving an uninterrupted view of the landscape beyond. The design includes ha lalcolismo turfed incline that slopes ha lalcolismo to a sharply vertical face ha lalcolismo a masonry retaining wall. Ha-has are used in landscape design to prevent access to a garden, for example by grazing livestock, without obstructing views. In security design, ha lalcolismo element is used to deter vehicular access to a site while minimizing visual obstruction.
The name "ha-ha" is thought to have stemmed from the exclamations of surprise by those coming across them, as the walls were intentionally designed so as not to be visible on the plane of the landscape. Before mechanical lawn mowers, a ha lalcolismo way to keep large areas of grassland trimmed was to allow livestock, usually sheep, to graze the grass. A ha-ha prevented grazing animals on large estates from gaining access to the lawn and gardens adjoining ha lalcolismo house, giving a continuous vista to create the illusion that the garden and landscape were one and undivided.
The basic design of sunken ditches is of ancient origin, being a feature of deer parks in England. The deer-leap or saltatorium consisted of a ditch with one steep side surmounted by a pale picket-style fence made of wooden stakes or hedge, which allowed deer to enter the park but not to leave.
Ha lalcolismo the time of the Norman conquest of England the right to construct a deer-leap was granted by the king, with reservations made ha lalcolismo to the depth of the foss or ditch and the height of the pale or hedge. The concept of the ha-ha is of French origin, with the term being attested in toponyms in New France from as seen today in Saint-Louis-du-Ha!
The technical innovation was presented in Dezallier d'Argenville 's La théorie et la pratique du jardinagewhich the architect Ha lalcolismo James ha lalcolismo into English:. Grills of iron are very necessary ornaments in the lines of walks, to extend the view, and to show ha lalcolismo country to advantage.
At present we frequently make thoroughviews, called Ah, Ah, which are openings in the walls, without grills, to the very level of the walks, with a large ha lalcolismo deep ditch at the foot of them, lined on both sides to sustain the earth, and prevent the getting over; which surprises the eye upon coming near it, and makes one laugh, Ha!
This sort of opening is haha, on some occasions, to ha lalcolismo preferred, for that it does not at all interrupt the prospect, as the bars of a grill do. The etymology of the term is generally given as being an expression of surprise—someone says "ha ha" or "ah! This ha lalcolismo the explanation given in French, where it is traditionally attributed to Louis, Ha lalcolismo Dauphinon encountering such features at Meudon, by d'Argenville trans.
Jamesabove, and ha lalcolismo Walpole, who surmised that the name is derived from the response of ordinary folk on encountering them and that they were " In Britain, the ha-ha is a feature of the landscape gardens laid out by Charles Bridgeman and William Kent and was an essential component of the "swept" views of Capability Brown.
Horace Walpole credits Bridgeman with the invention of the ha-ha but was unaware of the earlier French origins. The contiguous ground of the park without the sunk fence was to be harmonized with the lawn within; and the garden in its turn was to be set free from its prim regularity, ha lalcolismo it might assort with the wilder country without. During his excavations at Iona in the period —, Richard Reece discovered ha lalcolismo 18th-century ha-ha designed to protect the abbey ha lalcolismo cattle.
Most typically, ha-has are still found in the grounds of grand country houses and estates. They keep cattle and sheep out of the formal gardens, without the need for obtrusive fencing.
They vary in depth from about 0. This deep ha-ha was installed around to prevent sheep and cattle, grazing at a stopover on Woolwich Common on their journey to the London meat markets, from ha lalcolismo onto the Royal Ha lalcolismo gunnery range. A rare feature of this east-west ha-ha is that the normally hidden brick wall emerges above ground for its final 75 yards 70 metres or so as the land falls away to the west, revealing a fine batter [ clarification needed ] to the brickwork face of the wall, thus exposed.
The Royal Artillery ha-ha is maintained in a good state of preservation by the Ministry of Defence. Ha lalcolismo is a shorter ha-ha in the grounds of the nearby Jacobean Charlton House. Ha lalcolismo the inside, the walls presented a tall face to patients, preventing them from escaping, while from outside they looked low so as not to suggest imprisonment.
Remains of the original ha-ha wall at Beechworth Asylum from the "outside" of the original asylum boundary. End view at the beginning of the remains of the ha-ha at Beechworth Asylum, showing the sloping trench.
Ha-has were also used in North America. A 21st-century use of a ha-ha is at the Washington Monument to minimize the visual impact of security ha lalcolismo. The temporary barriers were later replaced with a new ha-ha, a low 0. Due to the hidden nature of ha-has, they can pose potential injury to the public especially considering their ha lalcolismo designs were to be invisible.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ha ha. For other uses, see Haha. Retrieved Pat Welsh. The lawn mower The ha-ha provided an invisible barrier Some account of English deer parks: with notes on the management of deer. London: John Murray. Legendary Dartmoor. Retrieved 24 November Barbara B. Oberg and J. Jefferson Looney.
Charlottesville : University of Virginia Ha lalcolismoRotunda,p. Online edition accessed 14 Aug Iona: a view from Ireland. Keeping it cool.
Scottish Vernacular buildings Working Group. Large and Associates Consulting Engineers. Archived from the original on Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Australia's places of confinement, National Trust of Australia. Nova Scotia Museum. Retrieved 14 October Department Security, Federal Emergency Agency. The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 24 December Garden features.
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