The city is largely and traditionally Russophonewhile ethnically the population is divided about evenly between Ukrainians and Russians. There is also a significant ethnic Greek minority in the city.
Mariupol was founded on the site of a former Cossack encampment named Kalmius  and granted city rights in Mariupol has played a key role in the industrialization of Ukraine. Due to the Soviet authorities frequently renaming cities after Communist leaders,  the city was known as Colm per comprare Mariupolafter the Soviet functionary Andrei Zhdanovbetween and Today, Mariupol remains a centre for industry, as well as higher education and business.
Following the Russian intervention in Ukraine and the capture of Donetsk city by pro-Russian insurgents associated with the Donetsk People's Republic inMariupol was made the provisional administrative Colm per comprare Mariupol of the Donetsk Oblast. The city was secured on June 13, by Ukrainian troops, and has come under attack several times since. During the late Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within a broader region that was largely devastated and depopulated by the intense conflict among the surrounding peoples, including the Crimean Tatarsthe Nogai Hordethe Grand Duchy of Lithuaniaand Muscovy.
By the middle of the 15th century much of the region north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea was annexed to the Crimean Khanate and became a dependency of the Ottoman Empire. East of the Dnieper river marked a desolate steppe, stretching to the sea of Azovwhere the lack of water made early settlement precarious.
Campi Deserti. In this region of the Eurasian steppes, the Cossacks emerged as a distinct people in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Below the Dnieper Rapids were the Zaporozhian Cossackscomposed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, and highly mobile groups that practised both pastoral and nomadic living.
The Cossacks would regularly penetrate the steppe for fishing and hunting, as well as for migratory farming and herding Colm per comprare Mariupol livestock.
Their independence from governmental and Colm per comprare Mariupol authority attracted and enlisted large numbers of fugitive peasants and serfs fleeing the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. The isolation Colm per comprare Mariupol the region was increased further by the Treaty of Constantinoplewhich provided that there should be no settlements or fortifications on the coast of the Azov Sea to the mouth of the Mius Colm per comprare Mariupol.
Moreover, in Colm per comprare Mariupol response to a Cossack alliance with Sweden against Colm per comprare Mariupol, Tsar Peter the Great ordered the destruction of the Zaporozhian central stockade Sich and their complete expulsion from the area, without allowance for their return. Under the terms of the Agreement of Lubny ofthe Zaporozhians regained all their former Colm per comprare Mariupol and, in return, they were to serve in the Russian army during wartime. They were also permitted to build a new stockade on the Dnieper River called New Sichthough the terms prohibited them from erecting fortifications, allowing only for living quarters kureni.
Upon their return, the Zaporozhian population in these lands was extremely sparse, and in an effort to establish a measure of control, they introduced a structure of districts palankas.
Afterthe Zaporozhian and the Don Cossacks whose capital was at nearby Novoazovsk came into conflict over the area, resulting in Tsarina Elizabeth issuing a decree in marking the Kalmius River as the divide between the two Cossack hosts. The last Tatar raidlaunched incovered a vast area, overrunning the New Russia province with a huge army in severe winter weather. Following the victory of the Russian forces in the Russo-Turkish War —74the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca eliminated the endemic threat from the Crimea and thereby terminated the historical justification of the Ukraine as a borderland okraina.
Chertkov, reported to Grigory Potemkin on 23 February that at this location existed the ruins of ancient domakha homesand in he planned the new town of Pavlovsk.
For the Russian authorities the city was named after the Russian Empress Maria Feodorovna ; but the city was named de facto after the Greek settlement of Mariampol, a suburb of Bakhchisaray. In it was an administrative seat of the county in the Azov Governorate of the Russian Empirewith a population of Colm per comprare Mariupol, inhabitants. In the early 19th century the customs house, a church-parish school, the port authorities building, a county religious Colm per comprare Mariupol, and two privately founded girls' schools appeared in the city.
In the s the population grew to 4, and the city had shops and 15 wine cellars. After construction of the railway line Colm per comprare Mariupol Yuzovka inmuch of the wheat grown in the Yekaterinoslav Governorate and coal from the Donets Basin were exported via the port of Mariupol the second largest after Odessa in the South Russian Empirewhich served as a key funding source for opening a hospital, public library, electric power station and urban water supply system.
The company incurred heavy losses and by went into bankruptcy, owing 6 million francs to the Providence company and needing to be re-financed by the Banque de l'Union Colm per comprare Mariupol. The number of workers employed increased to 5, persons. In the population of Mariupol reached 58, However, the period from onwards saw a continuous decline in population and industry due to the February Revolution and the Civil War.
In a new steelworks Azovstal was built along the Kalmius river. During this time there was tremendous damage to the city and many people were killed. The Jewish population was wiped out by two operations specifically aimed at murdering them. Following the Ukrainian revolutionpro-Russian and anti-revolution protests erupted across eastern Ukraine. In May of that year, a battle between the two sides broke out in Mariupol after it briefly came under DPR control.
Despite this ceasefire, minor skirmishes continued on the outskirts of Mariupol in the following months. To protect Colm per comprare Mariupol city, government forces established three defence lines on its outskirts, deployed heavy artillery, and large amounts of army and national guard troops. An assault on Mariupol was launched on 24 January by the Donetsk People's Republic rebel forces.
The city was defended by the Ukrainian government forces. Following the May opening of the Crimean Bridgecargo ships bound for Mariupol found themselves subject to inspections by the Russian authorities resulting in lengthy delays would sometimes stretch to a week.
Mariupol is located to the south of the Donetsk Oblaston the coast of Sea of Azov and at the mouth of Kalmius River. To the east of Mariupol is located the Khomutov Steppe which is also part of the Azov Lowland located on the border with the Russian Federation. The city occupies an area of The downtown area is The city is mainly built on land that is made of solonetzic sodium enriched chernozemswith a significant amount of underground subsoil water that frequently leads to landslides.
Mariupol has a humid continental climate Köppen climate Colm per comprare Mariupol Dfa with warm summers and cold winters. Agroclimatic conditions allow the cultivation in the suburbs of Mariupol thermophilic agricultural crops having long vegetative periods sunflower, melons, grapes, etc.
However water resources in the region are insufficient, and consequently ponds and water basins are used for the needs of the population and industry.
In the winter, the wind direction is mainly east, while in the summer, the wind is from the north. Mariupol leads Ukraine in the volume of emissions of harmful substances by industrial enterprises. Recently, the city's leading enterprises have begun to address the ecological problems. Thus, over the last 15 years industrial emissions have fallen nearly in half. Due to stable production by the majority of the large industrial enterprises, the city constantly experiences environmental problems. Even given some easing of the maximum-permissible concentrations maximum concentration limit in the state's industrial activity in the midsmany pollution limits were still exceeded:.
In the residential areas adjoining the industrial giants, concentrations of benzapiren reach 6—9 times the maximum concentration limits; fluoric hydrogen, ammonia, and formaldehyde reach 2—3 to 5 times the maximum concentration limits; dust and oxides of carbon, and hydrogen sulphide are times the maximum concentration limits; and dioxides of nitrogen are times the maximum concentration limits. The maximum concentration limit has been exceed on phenol by 17x, and on benzapiren by x.
Ill-considered arrangements of the construction platforms of Azovstal and Markokhim an economy in transport charges was assumed, both during construction in the s and during the subsequent operation have led to extensive wind-borne emissions into the central areas of Mariupol. Wind intensity and geographical "flatness" offer relief from the accumulation of long-standing pollutants, somewhat easing the problem. The nearby Sea of Azov is in distress.
The catch of fish in the area has Colm per comprare Mariupol reduced by orders of magnitude over the last 30—40 years. The environmental protection activity of the Colm per comprare Mariupol industrial enterprises in Mariupol costs millions of hrivnas, but it appears to have little effect on the city's long-standing environmental problems.
The Mariupol electorate traditionally supports left wing socialist and communist and pro-Russian Colm per comprare Mariupol parties. At the turn of the 21st century the Party of Regions numerically prevailed in Colm per comprare Mariupol City Council followed by the Socialist Party of Ukraine.
In the presidential elections of In the parliamentary electionsthe city voted for the Party of Regions —with Colm per comprare Mariupol The Mayor "head", chairman of executive committee of the city council is Vadym Boychenko. The Kalmius river separates the Livoberezhnyi Raion from the remaining three raions. The population is mostly concentrated in the Tsentralnyi and Prymorsky Raions.
The settlements of Stary Krym and Sartana are located in close proximity to the city limits of Mariupol Colm per comprare Mariupol map.
The modern coat of arms of Mariupol was Colm per comprare Mariupol in It is described in heraldic terms as: Per fess wavy argent and azure, on an anchor or, accompanied by the figure Colm per comprare Mariupol the last. The gold anchor has a ring on top. The number indicates the year of the Colm per comprare Mariupol founding. The argent represents steel; the azurethe sea; the anchor, the port; and the ring, metallurgy.
As of December 1,the city's population wasOver the last century the population has grown nearly twelvefold. The main language is Russian. The average annual population decline of city from to is 0. The death rate is Inethnic Ukrainians made up the largest percentage The city is predominantly Russian speaking. Most Greek-speaking villages in the region speak a dialect called Rumeíkathat is, a branch of Pontic Greek.
About 17 villages speak this language today. Modern scholars distinguish five subdialects of Rumeíka according to their similarity to standard Modern Greek. This was derived from the dialect of the original Pontic settlers from the Crimea.
Although Rumeíka is often described as a Pontic dialectthe situation is more nuanced. Arguments can be brought both for Rumeíka's similarity to Pontic Greek and to the Northern Greek dialects.
In the view of Maxim Kisilier, while the Rumeíka dialect shares some features with both the Pontic Greek and the Northern Greek dialects, it is better considered on Colm per comprare Mariupol own terms as a separate Greek dialect, or even a group of dialects.
After the October Revolution ofa Rumaiic revival occurred in the region. The Soviet administration established a Greek-Rumaiic theaterseveral magazines and Colm per comprare Mariupol newspaper, and a number of Rumaiic Colm per comprare Mariupol schools.
The best Rumaiic poet Georgi Kostoprav created a Rumaiic poetic language for his work. This process was reversed in as Kostoprav and many other Rumaiics and Colm per comprare Mariupol were killed as part of Joseph Stalin 's national policies. A new attempt to preserve a sense of ethnic Rumaiic identity started in the mids. Though a number of writers and poets Colm per comprare Mariupol use of this alphabet, the population of the region rarely uses it.
The Rumaiic language is declining rapidly, most endangered by the standard Modern Greek which is taught in schools and the local university.