Biyernes, Agosto 19, Lunes, Agosto 15, Using Italian This is a guide to Italian usage for students who have already acquired the basics of the language and wish to extend their knowledge. Unlike conventional grammars, it gives special attention to those areas of vocabulary and grammar which cause most difficulty to English speakers.
Careful consideration is given throughout to questions of style, register, and politeness which are essential to achieving an appropriate level of formality or informality in writing and speech. The book surveys the contemporary linguistic scene and gives ample space to the new varieties of Italian that are emerging in modern Italy. The influence of the dialects in shaping the development of Italian is also acknowledged.
Clear, readable and easy to consult via its two indexes, this is an essential reference for learners seeking access to the finer nuances of the Italian language. He has published widely on the Italian language spoken by migrants and their children. He works as both a tutor and a translator. Kinder and V. Savini Information on this title: www.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
This selection covers a wide range from matters of vocabulary to different levels of grammar. Thus the book begins in chapter 1 with an overview of the uniquely complex linguistic situation in contemporary Italy and gives a selection of examples of the types of Italian one may encounter in Italy. We have attempted to follow closely the companion volumes in this series, Using French and Using Spanish, even to the point of using the same examples where possible.
In this way, we hope that those interested in studying more than one of the principal Romance riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie will find these volumes useful for comparison and contrast.
We are grateful to our colleagues and students in the Department of Italian at the University of Western Australia for answering our frequent questions, reading sections of the manuscript, and making several useful suggestions. JJK VS xvii Abbreviations Common abbreviations adj adjective adv adverb Aus Australian English aux auxiliary do direct object esp especially f feminine fig figurative ly gen general ly indic indicative inf infinitive intr intransitive inv invariable io indirect object lit literally m masculine n noun O object pl plural qc qualcosa qu qualcuno S subject s singular sb somebody sth something subj subjunctive tr transitive UK United Kingdom English US United States English usu usually V verb xviii Abbreviations Other abbreviations abstr.
Latin leg. It is spoken by the 58 million inhabitants of Italy and in the Canton Ticino area of Switzerland, as well as by many millions of Italian migrants and their descendants in many parts of the world, especially Europe, North and South America, and Australia. The Italian language has a fascinating riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie in many ways unique history, which reflects the political and cultural history of Italy.
The Italian language was based, during the Renaissance, on an idealized version of fourteenth-century Florentine. This was true, with exceptions of course, for all parts of Italy and for all social classes. Since political unification inthe language has become universally adopted, and in the process has adapted rapidly to the demands of a modern, diversified society.
The Italian standard is therefore a modified version of fourteenth-century Florentine dialect. This standard is found in good dictionaries and is taught to classical actors and to newsreaders on national television. However, the Italian spoken and, to a lesser extent, written in most everyday situations differs from this standard in various ways. Furthermore, all Italians show their regional origin by their accent.
A regional accent is not, in itself, indicative of register or of the social characteristics of the speaker, though local accents are usually stronger in informal speech than in formal uses of language. In Italian riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie word has a quite different meaning. The Romance languages are so called because they are all derived from Latin, the language of ancient Rome and the Roman Empire.
Estimates of how many Italians knew Italian in vary from 2. Progress in the spread of Italian was slow until the second half of the twentieth century. Recent surveys show that around 7 per cent of the population claim to be still dialect-only speakers and around 30 per cent claim to speak only Italian.
Dialects are used more within the home than outside, more in informal situations than in formal ones, and more in the Northeast, the South, and 2 1. Older people use them more than younger people, and men more than women. Furthermore, dialects are used more among the lower classes, by people with lower levels of education but also, interestingly, by graduates more than by people with high school diplomas.
They are used more in rural areas and in smaller towns than in large towns. Besides riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie communication, they are used in other areas, e.
This also means that the distinguishing line between the dialects and Italian is in many cases becoming increasingly blurred, and this in two ways. First, in everyday conversation, linguistic forms from dialect and Italian are often mixed, for different reasons and to achieve different effects. Secondly, both Italian and the dialects are being affected by their constant use by bilingual speakers.
The dialects are absorbing massive influence from Italian, in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. But Italian, too, shows the results of this mixed use, as sounds, grammatical features, words, and expressions from the local dialect become accepted in the Italian of that locality. If it is true that the dialects in their traditional form are slowly dying, it is equally true that they are leaving their trace in the strongly marked regional varieties of Italian which draw so much from the dialect tradition.
The following passage, while it is invented, shows how dynamic and expressive can be the mixture of Italian in formal and informal registersdialects, and intermediate forms. The first speaker is a Calabrian husband, the other is his Venetian wife. Si prendono. Tase, te digo! Tu vuoi strascinar questa famiglia nel fango! Lu fangu sta sulle mani bianche del proprietario e del banchiere!
The Venetian dialect word is desgrassia, and this similarity acts as a trigger for the subsequent switch to dialect. Tase, te digo: Taci, ti dico, Venetian dialect.
The dropping of the -e off precipitare and disonore adds a lofty, almost poetic, tone. The Italian equivalent would be Noruccia. Lu fangu: il fango, Calabrian dialect. R1 The most casual register of everyday speech. It shows the greatest evidence of regional origin, including features from the local dialect sounds, riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie, and grammatical features.
It includes many features considered ungrammatical in contexts which require R3. Many of the features of italiano popolare occur in R1. We make no apology for including these terms — they are among the most frequent in colloquial Italian, and must be understood! R2 This register will show regional origin in pronunciation but less so in grammar and vocabulary. It is a truly intermediate register, which in a sense is best understood negatively: it lacks the dialect influences and very casual style of R1, but also lacks the formality of R3.
On the other hand, R2 is more flexible and is acceptable in a very wide range of riempito ha mangiato non saws ma ho comprato una pelliccia per la moglie, in both speech and writing. R3 includes bureaucratic, literary, archaic, and highly ritualized formal uses of language.
Many sub-registers have been identified, corresponding to various domains of professional and social activity, e. This is merely for the sake of convenience; such spellings will not normally be encountered. Some of these spellings are used by authors to give a local feel to direct speech. See the extract from Morante, La Storia, above. Syntactic doubling does not occur in the North. In certain cases, however, certain pairs of words have become so established in the language that they are written as one word, including the syntactic doubling, e.
Some also occur frequently in R2. Such rich geographical variation is still a major feature of spoken Italian. In the cinema, elements such as these, together with a strong accent, would be enough to characterize a speaker as coming from one of the three areas of the country. In Italian they are called geosinonimi. For example a coat-hanger is called ometto, stampella, attaccapanni, croce, and appendiabiti in the North, gruccia and cruccia in the Center, and stanfella, stampella, crocetta, gruccia, crociera, appendino, croce, and angioletto in the South.
The following list gives a sample of such words in current usage, with only the most common synonyms given for each area. Most of these are limited to R1. Meaning Region babbo father Tuscany stupid Sicily gnocco stupid Lazio easy Emilia type of pasta Tuscany and now all Italy passata hair band Tuscany tomato sauce North and South stampella crutch for walking Tuscany coathanger North and South comare gossip Center, Puglia, Abruzzo godmother South scostumato shameless Center bad-mannered South attaccapanni coat-hanger North coat-hook Center 1.
One has the impression of listening to dialect but in fact the speech is cleverly constructed, with only well-known dialect words and phrases, easily recognizable throughout Italy, inserted into Italian spoken with a strong regional accent.
The films also exaggerate cultural stereotypes of various parts of Italy, for satirical effect. Sembra Hyde Park. Guarda, sembra proprio un posto di delitti, questo qua. Scusami ancora, per piacere, per cortesia, compagna, ti dispiace se ti bacio? Ma no! Che finezza signorile per un ordinario. Prima mi domandi per piacere per cortesia un bacio, e dopo pratichi la violenza carnale.
Passione fu. Scusami Fiore, ma io fui travolto, io non potetti assolutissimamente resistere alla tentazione dei sensi.
Ma quando mai! Modestamente, con le femmine, risultai sempre gradito, io. Qualcheduno ti ha raccontato qualche cosa nei miei confronti?
Ma chi ti credi di essere? Serissimo sono. Credo che caddi innamorato di te appena ti vidi. Io no! Oh bella! Emphatic use of reflexive, e.